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CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD | Chapter 8

CHĀNDOGYA UPANISHAD.

EIGHTH CHAPTER.

Section I.

1. Hari, Om! Now, within this habitation of Brahma (the human body Brahmapura there is a small lotus-like chamber, and within it a minute vacuity (antarākāśa). That which is within the vacuity is worthy of search; that, verily, should be inquired after

2. Were (his pupils) to ask him (who makes the preceding remark), "Since within this habitation of Brahma, there is a lotus-like chamber, and within it a minute vacuity, what is within it, that is worthy of search? that verily should be enquired after?"

3. He would say, "Verily as extensive is space, so is the vacuity within the heart. Both the earth and the heaven exist within it. Both Agni, and Vāyu, both the sun and the moon, as also lightning and the stars, and whatever else exist in this (universe) as well as what do not-all exist within this vacuity."

4. Were (his pupils) to ask him (who thus responds), "If within this habitation of Brahma are lodged all these objects, all these created objects and all these human desires, when (the body) wasteth and dies, which for certain it does, what remains behind?"

5. He says, "The diseases of the body can never reduce it to decrepitude, nor the slaughter of the body effect its destruction. This habitation of Brahma is verily an everlasting truth. In it dwell all human desires. It is the Soul, it is far from all vice, it is not subject to death; it is immortal and above affliction.
It is neither afflicted by hunger nor thirst. Truthful is its wish; and truth is its resolve. As (evanescently) pass away the rewards of the subjects who become obedient to what is ordained (by kings) and obtain according to their wish-this or this-a province or a field,-

6. "As this region, obtained through works, runs to waste (or passes away) and that region, which may be obtained through virtue, passes away,-so do they who live without knowing the Soul. For them all these truthful desires become unfruitful in every region. For them who live with knowledge of the Soul all truthful desires become fruitful in all regions.

Section II.

1. "Should he desire the region of Pitri (Father) he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Pitris receive him with welcome.

2. "Next, should he desire the region of Mātṛi (Mother), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Mātṛis receive him with welcome.

3. "Next, should he desire the region of Bhrātṛi (Brother), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Bhrātṛis receive him with welcome.

4. "Next, should he desire the region of Swasṛi (Sister), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Swasṛis receive him with welcome.

5. "Next, should he desire the region of Sakhā (Friends), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Sakhās receive him with welcome.

6. "Next, should he desire the region of Gandhamālya (Essence and Garland), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment lie wishes it, the Gandhamālyas receive him with welcome.

7. "Next, should he desire the region of Annapāna (Food and Drink), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Annapānas receive him with welcome.

8. "Next, should he desire the region of Gītabāditra (Song and Music), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Gītabāditras receive him with welcome.

9. "Next, should he desire the region of Strī (Women), he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, the Strīs receive him with welcome.

10. "Whatever country he desires, whatever he desires, he attains it with glory, for verily the moment he wishes it, it abideth for him.

Section III.

1. "They, the truthful desires, are enveloped in untruth. Of those truthful objects there is a false covering. He who is translated from this (world) to that, is never again beheld in this world.

2. "Whatever man desires and gets not, whether it be, such (of his relatives, and friends,) as are alive, or such as are dead, or whatever else it be (be it food, raiment or drink); all those might be obtained within this (vacuity in the heart); therein dwell those truthful desires, which have untruth for their envelope.
As those who are ignorant of the nature of (mineral) beds might pass repeatedly over an undiscovered mine of gold and find it not, so do mankind daily retire to this vacuity (in their sleep) and yet being misled by untruth, they find not this Brahmaloka.

3. " Verily that Soul (ātma) abideth in the heart! Of a truth its epithet is hṛidyayam. Therefore he who knows it daily retires to the region of sarga (heaven) in his heart.

4. "He who has confidence in this, rising from this body and attaining a noble body of light, abides in his own form. This is the (description of the) Soul." He (the narrator in reply to his pupils) continued: "That Soul is deathless; it is devoid of fear; it is Brahma. Of this Brahma the (proper) name is Satya (truth).

5. Verily (that Brahma is indicated by) these three syllables Satīya. Thereof the syllable sa implies immortality; the syllable tī earthliness, and the syllable ya is a particle which joins the other two, and since it joins the two it means restraint of passions. He who knows this attains the region of Sarga.

Section IV.

1-2.Now, that which is the Soul (ātma) is a bridge; it is a support for the preservation of all these worlds from destruction.
This bridge cannot be crossed by day nor by night, nor by disease, nor by death, nor grief, nor virtue, nor vice. All defects depart therefrom. This region of Brahma is devoid of vice. Crossing this bridge the blind cease to be blind, the wounded cease to be wounded, the afflicted cease to be afflicted. Hence verily on crossing this bridge nights become days. For certainly ever-refulgent is the region of Brahma.

3.  For him verily exists this Brahma-loka, who can attain it through Brahmacharya. His desires are satisfied in every region.

Section V.

1. Now, that which is called Yajña is Brahmacharya. The man who acquires a knowledge of the Brahma-loka through Brahmacharya, attains the region of Brahma. That which is called Ishta is Brahmacharya. Through Brahmacharya is that Soul attained which is Ishta.

2.  Now that which is called Sātrāyaṇa is Brahmacharya. By Brahmacharya doth one serve his own self (Ātmā). That which is called Mauna is Brahmacharya. Through Brahmacharya is that Soul known and meditated upon.

3.  Now that which is called Anāśakāyanam (fasting) is Brahmacharya. That soul is not destroyed which is known through Brahmacharya. That which is called Araṇyāyana  is Brahmacharya. Ara means an "ocean" and nya means an ocean ; and these two oceans abide in the region of Brahma. In that third heaven from this there are a delightful tank full of gruel, an āswattha tree from which exudes nectar, and a palace of gold built by Brahma and named Aparājita. They belong to Brahma.

4. For them is reserved this region of Brahma who know through Brahmacharya the two oceans ara and nya. Their desires are accomplished in all regions.

Section VI.

1. Now, the arteries of the heart exist steeped in a brown ethereal fluid,-yea in a white, a blue, a yellow, a red ethereal fluid. Verily the Sun exists as brown, as white, as blue, as yellow, as red.

2. As a main road with a village at each end, meets both this and that, so do the rays of the sun meet both this region and that. From that sun they spread. They enter these arteries. Thence they spread. They enter the sun.

3. When man is so asleep that all his faculties are devoid of action and his feelings are at rest, he dreams not. Then is he abiding in these arteries. Then can no sin fasten on him. Then is he refulgent in light.

4. Now, when he is diseased and about to die, those around him enquire, "Do you recognise me? do you recognise me?"
He recognises them as long as he does not depart from his body.

5. When he quits his body he rises upwards with the aid of the rays aforesaid, resounding Om. When his mind ceases to act he attains the sun. That is the way to the region above.
It is open to the learned, but closed to the ignorant.

6. Thereof is the verse: "There are a hundred and one arteries issuing from the heart; one of them penetrates the crown of the head. The man, who departs this life through that artery, secures immortality. The rest of the arteries lead to various transitions,-they lead to various transitions."

Section VII.

1. "He, who is the Soul, who is bereft of sin,-He, Who is not subject to decay, death or repining,-He, who eats not, nor feels the sensation of thirst,-He who is all truthful in his wishes and his resolves,-even He should be sought for and enquired after.
He attains all his wishes, he attains all the regions who, having enquired, knoweth the Soul." Of a truth, thus said Prajāpati.

2. Verily, thus knew the Devas and Asuras. They said, "We shall enquire after that Soul by knowing which all regions as well as all desires may be attained."
Then did Indra, among the Devas, and Virochana among the Asuras, proceed forth, without communicating with each other. Sacrificial fuel in hand both repaired to Prajāpati.

3. They lived as Brahmachārins for the period of 32 years. Unto them said Prajāpati," With what intent do you abide here?", They replied," The learned believe it to be your lordship saying, 'That the Soul which is without sin, which is not subject to decay, death or repining; which eats not, nor feels the sensation of thirst; and whose wishes and resolves are all-truthful-even such a Soul should be sought for and enquired after; and that he attains all the regions and all his wishes who, having enquired, khoweth that Soul.' Wishing to know that we abide here."

4. Unto them said Prajāpati, "The being that you perceive within the eye is that Soul;" and, added "it is Brahma, the deathless and fearless." [The pupils, taking him literally and believing the Brahma to be a mere shadow, enquired:]
"Which is it, revered Sir, that you allude to, the shadow that is seen in water, or that which is perceived in a mirror?" Prajāpati returned, "Of a certain it is perceived in both."

Section VIII.

1. (Prajāpati said), "Go and view yourselves in that panful of water, and should you fail to know the Soul, enquire of me."
They beheld themselves in a panful of water. Unto them said Prajāpati, "What do ye behold?" They replied, "We behold ourselves in this, Sir, pictures of ourselves to the very hair and nails."

2. Unto them said Prajāpati, "Go, and having cleaned your persons and adorned yourselves with costly ornaments and rich clothing, behold yourselves in that panful of water."
They, having cleansed their persons and put on costly ornaments and rich clothing, beheld themselves in a panful of water. Of them enquired Prajāpati, “What do you perceive?"

3. They two replied; " Sir, as we are well adorned, well-dressed and cleanly, so do we behold ourselves in this, well-adorned, well-dressed and cleanly."
He said, "That is Brahma, the deathless, and fearless." They two went away satisfied.

4. Prajāpati, observing them, said, "Since these two are going away without attaining or knowing the Truth, this instruction will be for the defeat of the Devas and Asuras."
He Virochana, with a feeling of satisfaction, repaired to the Asuras, and unto them imparted this instruction:
"Self alone is adorable; in this (world) self alone should be served; by adoring and serving one’s self both this and the other world may be attained."

5. Therefore thenceforward the Asuras give no alms, have no faith in good works, and officiate at no sacrifice; hence are they called Asuras. This is their Upanishad (canon). Their dead are besmeared with aromatics and adorned with ornaments and costly raiments, and they think that thereby they will overcome this region and that.

Section IX.

1. Now, Indra, without going to the Devas, felt frightened, (saying,) "Verily, this (shadow) becomes well adorned when the body is well-adorned, and well-dressed when (the body) is well-dressed, and clean when the body is clean. Again it becomes blind when the body is blind, defective when the body is defective, and mutilated when the body is mutilated. Further, on the destruction of this body it is destroyed. I can see no good in this."

2. Therefore, with sacrificial fuel in hand he returned. Unto him said Prajāpati, " You went away with Virochana, perfectly satisfied, O Maghavan: what do you wish by returning back?"
He replied, “Since of a truth, O Lord, this (shadow) becomes well - adorned when the body is well-adorned, and well-dressed when the body is well-dressed, and clean when the body is clean; again it becomes blind when the body is blind, and defective when the body is defective, and mutilated when the body is mutilated; further, on the destruction of this body it is destroyed: I can see no good in this."

3. "Even so it is, Maghavan," said (Prajāpati) and continued, "I shall again explain it unto you. Do you abide here for another thirty-two years."
He there dwelt for another thirty-two years. Unto him said (Prajāpati):

Section X.

1. "That which enjoys in a dream the feeling of being gratified by the attainment of a coveted object, is the Soul:” and continued, "it is deathless and fearless; it is Brahma." Verily he, (Indra,) went away satisfied, but before he reached the Devas he felt frightened (saying), "Verily, this feeler of dreams becomes not blind when the body is deprived of its eyes, and remains unmutilated when the body is mutilated; it is not affected by the defects of the body;

2. "Nor destroyed by the destruction of the body, nor mutilated by its mutilation: it feels as if it is being destroyed, driven away, put to grief and to weeping. Verily, I can see no good in this."

3. Therefore with sacrificial fuel in hand be returned. Unto him said Prajāpati, "You went away satisfied, O Maghavan. What do you wish in returning back?"
He replied, "Since it (the soul you have pointed out) becomes not blind when the body is deprived of its eyes, and remains unmutilated when the body is mutilated, it is not affected by the defects of the body;

4. "Nor destroyed by the destruction of the body, nor mutilated by its mutilation;-since it feels as if it is being beaten, driven away, put to grief and to weeping, I see no good in it."
"Even so it is, Maghavan," said (Prajāpati) and continued, "I shall again explain it unto you. Do you abide here for another thirty-two years." He dwelt there for another thirty-two years.
Unto him said (Prajāpati):

Section XI.

1. "That in which retiring, the sleeper is completely at rest and knows no dreaming, is the Soul," and continued, "It is deathless, and fearless; It is Brahma. “Verily, he Indra went away satisfied, but before he reached the Devas he felt frightened, (saying), "Verily, it then knows not itself that I am this; nor does it know these elements thus (i. e. as they are) ; it seems to be altogether destroyed for the time. I can see no good in this."

2. Therefore with sacrificial fire in hand he returned. Unto him said Prajāpati, "You went away satisfied, O Maghavan, what do you wish in returning back?"
He replied, "It, (the soul you have pointed out,) knows not its own self that I am this, nor does it know these elements thus (i. e. as they are); it seems altogether destroyed for the time. I can see no good in this,"

3. "Even so it is," replied Prajāpati (and continued,) "I shall again explain unto you this Soul, but nothing beside it. Do you abide here for five years more."
He dwelt there for five years more; he completed a hundred and one years. Therefore do good people say, Maghavan dwelt with Prajāpati for a hundred and one years as a Brahmachārin. Prajāpati said unto him:

Section XII.

1. “Of a truth this body is mortal, O Maghavan! It is subject to death. Yet is it a resting-place of the immortal and unembodied Soul. When thus embodied, it is verily subject to desirable and repulsive objects. To the embodied there is no release from susceptibility to desirable and repulsive objects. Verily the unembodied never comes in contact with desirable and repulsive objects.

2. "Unembodied are the wind and the clouds the lightning and the thunder. They are all without body. Issuing forth from yonder sky by the attainment of the great (solar) heat, they assume their respective forms.

3. "Even like unto them, man, issuing forth from his body by the attainment of the Great Light, assumes his own genuine form. He is (then) the best of men. He then lords it with eating and playing, and enjoying with woman, or equipages, or relatives, without thinking of the body. Even as cattle are attached to an equipage, so is the Soul (Prāṇa) attached to the body.

4. "Now, within those spaces (Ākāśa orbits) are the eyes, and the eyes are intended for the observation of the Being who dwells within the eyes. He who willeth ‘I shall smell' is the Soul (Ātmā,) wishing to inhale odours. Now, he who willeth 'I shall speak’ is the Soul, wishing to articulate speech. Now, he who willeth ‘I shall hear’ is the Soul, wishing to hear sounds.

5. "Now, he who willeth 'I shall think, is the Soul thereof. The mind is the celestial eye, observing all objects of desire; By the aid of the mental celestial eye the Soul enjoys them all.

6. "Now, because the Devas adored that Soul in the region of Brahma, therefore, they obtained all regions, and all their desires were fulfilled. He attains all regions and obtains all his desires, who, having duly enquired, knows the Soul." Thus said Prajāpati, verily thus said Prajāpati.

Section XIII.

1. “From blackness I attain multicolor, from multicolor I attain blackness. Like unto the horse which shakes off all dust from its coat, or the moon which escapes from the mouth of Rāhu, I shall purify my body and, becoming free (by the aid of dhyāna), attain, verily attain-the uncreated Brahmaloka."

Section XIV;

1. "Verily that which is known as Ākāśa is made of name and form. That which is beyond the two (name and form) is Brahma; It is immortal: It is the universal Soul. I shall attain the audience chamber of Prajāpati. I shall attain the glory of Brāhmaṇa. I shall attain the glory of kings, (Kshatriyas) I shall attain the glory of Vaisyas; I desire all glory; I desire the glory of the glorious; I shall not enter again, no, I shall not enter the white toothless all devouring slippery object."

Section XV.

1. Verily this was related by Brahma to Prajāpati, by Prajāpati to Manu, and by Manu to mankind. Having studied the Veda in the house of a tutor, and having paid to the Guru what is his due, one should dwell with his family in a healthy country, reading the Vedas, bringing up virtuous sons and pupils, devoting himself with all his senses to the Universal Soul, and injuring no created being. Having lived thus as long as life lasts, he attains the Brahmaloka. Thence he never returns, Verily thence he never returns.

THE END


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