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CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD | Chapter 2

CHĀNDOGYA UPANISHAD.

SECOND CHAPTER.

Section I.

1. Om! Verily, the adoration of the entire Sāma is proper. Whatever is proper is Sāma; and whatever is improper, is not Sāma.

2. Hence it is generally said "He went to him [to a king] with Sāma," meaning that he proceeded becomingly, and "He went to him without Sāma," i. e. he proceeded unbecomingly.

3. It is also said when any good happens, "Sāma has happened unto us," meaning, "Good has happened unto us," and when any evil happens, "Asama has happened unto us," meaning that evil has happened.

4. Unto him, who knowing this adores the Sāma whose characteristic is propriety, the most proper acts and religion become feasible and easily accessible.

Section II.

1. The five-formed Sāma should be adored [by identifying it] with the regions from below upwards, [thus] ; the earth as Hinkara, the fire (Agni) as Prastava, the Ether, [Antariksha] as Udgītha, the sun, [Āditya] as Pratihāra, and the heavens as Nidhana.

2. And also from above downwards, [thus] ; the heaven [Dyāna] as Hinkara, the sun as Prastava, Ether [Antariksha as Udgītha, the fire [Agni] as Pratihāra, and the earth as NIDHANA.

3. Unto him these regions from below upwards, and from above downwards, become accessible, who, knowing thus, adores the five-formed Sāma [by identifying it] with these regions.

Section III.

1. In rain should the five-formed Sāma be adored: the forward wind as Hinkara, whatever cloud collects as Prastava, the raining [itself] as Udgītha, the lightning and rolling of clouds as Pratihāra, and the cessation of the rain as Nidhana.

2. He who, knowing thus, adores the five-formed Sāma by identifying it with rain, can command the rain to fall [at his pleasure], and for him doth rain pour [forth its treasures].

Section IV.

1. In the waters [of this earth] should the five-formed Sāma be adored: the clouds which collect together into dense masses as Hinkara, that which falls [in drops] as Prastava, those waters which low to the east as Udgītha, those to the west as Pratihāra, and the ocean as Nidhana.

2. He who, knowing thus, adores the five-formed Sāma by identifying it with the waters, falleth not into water, and becomes the lord of the same.

Section V.

1. In the seasons should the five-formed Sāma be adored: the spring as Hinkara, the summer as Prastava, the autumn as Udgītha, the dewy-season [Sarat] as Pratihāra, and the winter as Nidhana.

2. For him are the seasons designed who adores the five-formed Sāma in the seasons: he is the lord of the seasons.

Section VI.

1. In the beasts [of the field] should the five-formed Sāma be adored: the goats as Hinkara, the sheep as Prastava, the cows as Udgītha, the horses as Pratihāra, and man as Nidhana.

2. To him belong the beasts of the field who, knowing all this, adores the five-formed Sāma in the beasts.

Section VII.

1. In the vital airs should the five-formed, the noble and venerable Sāma be adored: respiration [Prāṇa] as Hinkara, speech as Prastava, the eyes as Udgītha, the ears as Pratihāra, and the mind as Nidhana they are all noble and venerable.

2. Verily his life becomes noble and venerable, and he triumphs over noble and venerable regions, who, knowing all this, adores the five-formed, the noble and venerable Sāma in the vital airs. This much about the five-formed Sāma.

Section VIII.

1. Now [the adoration] of the seven-formed [Sāma will be disclosed]. In speech is the seven-formed [Sāma to be adored.] Of words [the adjunct] Hun is Hinkara, [the prefix] Pra is Prastava, [the prefix] Ā. is Ādi,

2. [The prefix] Ut is Udgītha, [the prefix] Prati  is Pratihāra, [the prefix] Upa  is Upadrava, and [the prefix] Ni is Nidhana.

3. Unto him speech yields its treasure, and he becomes the lord and consumer of aliment, who, thus knowing, adores the seven-formed Sāma in speech.

Section IX.

1. Next verily should yonder sun be adored [as identified] with the seven-formed Sāma. It is always equal [Sāma] and is therefore [called] Sāma. Everybody says, ["it looks] towards me, [it looks] towards me: “thus equally [perceived by all], [it is called] Sāma.

2. Know that on it depend all these [visible] objects. Its pre-ascension is Hinkara, on it depend all animals, and hence do they growl [ at that hour]. They are, with the Sāma, co-sharers of the Hinkara.

3. Next, its first ascent is Prastava. On it are men dependants, for they are desirous of [praise], Prastuti. They are, with the Sāma, co-sharers of the Prastava.

4. Next, that hour of its ascent when caws associate with their calves is Ādi; on it depend birds who unsupported fly about in the air, in praise of the Supreme. They are, with the Sāma, co-sharers of the Ādi.

5. Next, the time when it arrives at mid-day is Udgītha. On it depend gods [Devas], therefore are these good beings among the suns of Prajāpati, co-sharers, with the Sāma, of the Udgītha.

6. Next, the time when it passes beyond the meridian is Pratihāra. On it depend the Garbhas; therefore are they kept attracted and fall not. They are co-sharers, with the Sāma, of the Pratihāra.

7. Next, the transition from mid-day to afternoon is Upadrava. On it depend wild animals who fly [upadravanti] from the sight of man, to [seek] shelter in deserts. They are co-sharers, with the Sāma, of the Upadrava.

8. Next, the first twilight is Nidhana. To it are the Pitris attached, and therefore are oblations offered to the manes at that hour. They are co-sharers, with the Sāma, of the Nidhana:-Thus verily should the seven-formed Sāma be adored [as identified] with yonder sun.

Section X.

1. Next, verily the seven-formed Sāma, which is above death like unto the soul, should be adored. Hinkara, [includes] three letters, [so] doth Prastava, include three letters, therefore are they equal.

2. [The word] Ādi [includes] two letters, and [the word] Pratihāra four letters, of which [latter] one letter [being added to the former] they become equal.

3. [The word] Udgītha [includes] three letters, and [the word] Upadrava, four; the three [of the former] with the three [of the latter] are equal, leaving one letter redundant; [which being assumed] to be three, they [all become] equal.

4. [The word] Nidhana, [includes] three letters, and therefore it is equal [with the rest]. These well-known terms thus verily [include] twenty-two letters.

5. The twenty-first is the sun [Āditya], for it is the twenty-first from this earth. By the twenty-second that which is above the sun, might be triumphed; it is heaven exempt from pain and grief.

6. He obtaineth the conquest of the sun, and that which is above the conquest of the sun, who, knowing all this, adores - verily adores-the seven-formed which is above death, and like unto the soul.

Section XI.

1. The mind is Hinkara, speech Prastava, the eyes Udgītha, the ears Pratihāra, and Prāṇa Nidhana: [thus] is this Gāyatra Sāma connected with life [Prana].

2. He, who knows the Gāyatra to be thus connected with Prāṇa, becomes possessed of life [Prana], enjoys the full limit of existence, his career becomes refulgent, he becometh great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds; and his duty is to be noble-minded.

Section XII.

1. The generation [of fire by friction] is Hinkara, the smoke which issues [therefrom] is Prastava, the lame is Udgītha; whatever charcoal forms is Pratihāra, the blowing out [of the lame] is Nidhana, and its entire cessation [also] is Nidhana. [Thus] is the Rāthāntara Sāma connected with fire, [Agni].

2. He, who knows the Rāthāntara thus connected with fire [Agni], attains the glory available by the study and practice of the Vēdas, a superior power of digestion, and enjoys the full limit of existence; his career becomes refulgent, he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds;-and his duty is not to eat or spit before a fire.

Section XIII.

[Two Verses omitted],

Section XIV.

1. The dawn is Hinkara, the ascent [of the sun] Prastava, the mid-day Udgītha, the afternoon Pratihāra, and the disappearance Nidhana. [Thus] is the Brihat [Sāma] connected with the sun [Āditya].

2. He who knows the Brihat [Sāma] to be thus connected with Āditya, becomes a mighty consumer of aliment, enjoys the full limit of existence, his career becomes refulgent, he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds; and his duty is not to calumniate the sun.

Section XV.

1. The vapours collect, it is Hinkara, the clouds overcast [the sky], it is Prastava; it rains, it is Udgītha; the lightning flashes and the thunder rolls, they are Pratihāra; the ascent [of vapours] is Nidhana. [Thus is] the Vairupa [Sāma] connected with the clouds.

2. He who knows the Vairupa Sāma, thus connected with the clouds, obtains both well-formed and ugly cattle, and the full limit of existence ; his career becomes refulgent; he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds;-and his duty is not to calumniate the rain-pouring clouds.

Section XVI.

1. The spring is Hinkara, the summer Prastava, the autumn Udgītha, the dewy-season Pratihāra, and the winter Nidhana. [Thus] is the Vairāja [Sāma] connected with the seasons.

2. He who knows the Vairāja [Sāma] thus connected with the seasons, becomes magnificent in dependants, Cattle and Vedaic glory, obtains the full limit of existence, his career becomes glorious, and he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds;-and his duty is not to calumniate the seasons.

Section XVII.

1. The earth is Hinkara, space [Antariksha] is Prastava, the heaven Udgītha, the sides Pratihāra, and the ocean Nidhana. [Thus] are the Sakkari Sāma hymns connected with the stations.

2. He who knows the Sakkari [Sāma hymns] to be thus connected with the stations, obtaineth the wealth of those stations, and the full limit of existence; his career becomes glorious, he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds; and his duty is not to calumniate the stations.

Section XVIII.

1. The goats are Hinkara, the sheep Prastava, the cows Udgītha, the horses Pratihāra, and man Nidhana; [thus] are the Revatya [Sāma hymns] connected with animals.

2. He who knows the Revatya [Sāma-hymns] to be thus connected with animals, becomes the lord of animals, enjoys the full limit of existence, his career becomes glorious, he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds; and his duty is not to calumniate animals.

Section XIX.

1. The hair of the body is Hinkara, the skin Prastava, the flesh Udgītha, the bones Pratihāra, and the marrow Nidhana. [Thus] are the Yajna-Yajnīya [Sāma hymns] connected with the body.

2. He, who knows the Yajna-Yajnīya [Sāma hymns] to be thus connected with the body, obtains a perfect body which never becomes defective, enjoys the full limit of existence, his career becomes glorious, he becomes great in dependants and cattle, and great in noble deeds, and his duty is not to eat meat for a year, or not to eat meat at all.

Section XX.

1. Agni [fire] is Hinkara, the wind Prastava, the sun Udgītha, the stars Pratihāra, and the moon Nidhana. [Thus] are these Rājana [Sāma hymns] connected with gods [devatās].

2. He, who knows the Rājana [Sāma hymns] to be thus connected with the gods, obtains habitation, wealth, body, similar unto what appertain to these gods; he enjoys the full limit of existence, his career becomes glorious, he becomes great in dependants, and cattle, and great in noble deeds; and his duty is not to calumniate Brāhmaṇas.

Section XXI.

1. The threefold knowledge constitutes the Hinkara; the three regions form the Prastava; Agni, Vāyu and Āditya are the Udgītha; the stars, the feathered tribe and the rays [of light] form the Pratihāra, and the serpent race, the Gandharvas and the manes are Nidhana. Thus is the Sāma connected with all.

2. He who thus knows the Sāma connected with all [objects] becomes [the lord of] all.

8. Thereof is the verse: "there is nothing greater than the fivefold three."

4. He, who knows this, understands everything; unto him all the different quarters [of the earth] render tribute; his duty-his duty-is to entertain the belief that "I am all."

Section XXII.

1. [A chanter said] "I wish for the taurine-toned Sāma hymn, the canticle of Agni, which contributes to the weal of animals." The hymns of the aniructa tone belong to Prajāpati; those of the niructa tone to Soma; those of the mild sweet tone to Vāyu; those of the sweet high-pitched tone to Indra; those of the tone resembling the voice of the crane to Brihaspati, and to Varuna, those of the tone of a broken piece of bell-metal:-they are all to be practised; the hoarse toned alone are to be avoided.

2. [The hymns] are to be sung [with the wish]: "Let me sing for the immortality of the gods. For [the due offering of] oblations to the manes, for the [fulfilment of the] desires of mankind, for securing grass and water to animals, heaven to the institutors of sacrifices, and aliment for self, let me sing." Thinking thus without excitement let them be sung.

3. "The vowels [swara] constitute the body of Indra, the sibilants and ha [Ūsmāna] that of Prajāpati, and the consonants [sparsā] that of Death. Should anybody revile him [who is a reciter of these] he should say, "I take protection of Indra, he will give thee a meet reply."

4. Should any revile him about the sibilants and ha, he should say; " I take protection of Prajāpati, he will ground thee down;" and should any revile him about the consonants, he should say; "I take protection of Death, he will hurl thee into flames."

5. The vowels are to be recited with sound and force, saying: "I take the strength of Indra." The sibilants and ha are to be sounded internally, but not uttered out [of the mouth], and yet distinctly, saying: "to Prajāpati, I resign my life." The consonants are to be repeated slowly and distinctly, saying: "from death, I extricate my life."

Section XXIII.

1. Threefold is the division of Duty. Sacrifice, study and charity

2. Constitute the first; Penance is the second, and Residence by a Brahmachārin exclusively in the house of a tutor is the third. All those [who attend to these duties] attain virtuous regions; the believer in Brahmā alone attains to immortality.

3. Prajāpati reflected on mankind; from it, the reflected, issued forth the threefold knowledge; he reflected on it; from it, the reflected, proceeded the [three] letters, Bhu, Bhuva and Sva!

4. On them, he reflected; from them, the reflected, issued forth Om. As leaves are attached to their stalks, so is speech connected with Om. Verily all this is Om! Verily all this is Om!

Section XXIV.

1. The knowers of the Veda declare the morning ceremony to belong to the Vashus, that of the mid-day to the Rudras, and that of the afternoon to the Suns and the Viswe-devas.

2. Where then is the region for the institutor of sacrifice? How can he, who knoweth not that [the reply to this query] perform [ceremonies]? Now he, who knoweth, should perform [the same].

3. Before the reading of the matin chant [prātar anuvāk], he [the institutor of sacrifice], sitting down behind the household fire [garhyapatya agṇi], with his face to the north, singeth the Sāma hymn relating to the Vashus.

4. "Unfold the gates of this earth, that we may behold thee for our supremacy."

5.-6. Then doth he offer the oblation to the fire, [saying]: 

"Salutations be to Agni, the receptacle of the earth, and the support of regions. [Oh ye] secure a region for me, who am an institutor of sacrifice! This is the region of the institutor of sacrifice. I, institutor of sacrifice, will secure it after death. May this oblation prove acceptable!

"Cast aside the bars." And then he riseth. For him do the Vashus fulfil the morning ceremony.

7. Before the commencement of the mid-day ceremony, sitting behind Agṇidhrīya fire, and facing the north, he singeth the Sāma in praise of the Rudras, [saying];

8. "Unfold the gates of [yonder] region, that we may behold thee for our full supremacy."

9.-10. Then doth he offer the oblation, saying: "I salute the Winds, who abideth in the sky and are the supports of regions. [Oh ye] secure a region for me who am an institutor of sacrifice! This verily is the region of the institutor of sacrifice. I, institutor of sacrifice, will secure it after death.
May this oblation prove acceptable! Cast aside the bars."
And then he riseth. For him do the Rudras fulfil the midday ceremony.

11. Before the commencement of the afternoon ceremony, sitting behind the Āhavanīya fire, with his face to the north, he singeth the Sāma in praise of the Suns and the Vishwadevas, [saying]:

12.-13. "Unfold the gates of [yonder] region that we may behold thee for our heavenly supremacy!" Thus much for the Suns; and then to the Viswedevas: "Unfold the gates of yonder region, that we may behold thee for our absolute supremacy!"

14. Then doth he offer the oblation, saying : " I salute the Suns and the Viswedevas, the dwellers of heaven and the supporters of regions. Secure that region for me, who am an institutor of sacrifice.

15. "That is verily the region for the institutor of sacrifice. I, institutor of sacrifice, shall come thereto after death. May this oblation prove acceptable! Cast aside the bars."Saying this he riseth.

16. For him do the Suns and Viswedevas fulfil the afternoon ceremony. He understands the real purport of ceremonies, who knoweth this-verily, he who knoweth this, [understands the real purport of ceremonies].


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