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CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD | Chapter 1

CHĀNDOGYA UPANISHAD.

FIRST CHAPTER.

Section I.

1. Om! this letter, the Udgītha, should be adored. Om is chanted:-its description.

2. The earth constitutes the essence of all substances; water is the essence of the earth, and annual herbs of water; man forms the essence of annual herbs, and speech is the essence of man; Rig is the essence of speech, Sāma of the Rig, and of the Sāma, the Udgītha is the essence.

3. The Udgītha is the quintessence of all these essences; it is the Supreme, the most adorable, the eighth.

4. What? what is the Rig? What? what the Sāma? What? what the Udgītha? These are questioned.

5. Rig is speech, Sāma is life, and Om, this letter, is the Udgītha. Verily this and that, speech and breath (prāṇa) Rig and Sāma,-make a Mithuna (couple).

6.-The Mithuna unites with the letter Om, as couples uniting together gratify each other’s desires.

7. He verily becomes the gratifier of desires, who, knowing it thus, adores the undecaying Udgītha.

8. Verily this is an injunctive term. Whatever is enjoined, Om is surely repeated; hence this injunction is called Prosperity. He verily becomes the gratifier of desires, and promoter of prosperity who, knowing all this, adores the undecaying Udgītha.

9. Through its greatness and effects is the threefold knowledge maintained; for the worship of this letter is Om recited, Om exclaimed, Om chanted.

10. Both, those who are versed in the letter thus described, and those who are not, alike perform ceremonies through this letter. Knowledge and ignorance are unlike each other.

What is performed through knowledge, through faith, through Upanishad, is more effectual. This verily is the description of the letter.

Section II.

1. Wherefore indeed the Devas (Gods) and the Asuras (demons), the offspring of Prajāpati, contended. Thereof the Devas collected the Udgītha, saying, hereby we will overcome the Asuras.

2. They adored breath as the Udgītha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; hence it smells both fetor and aroma, being verily contaminated by sin.

3. They then adored speech as the Udgītha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; hence it expresses both truth and untruth, being verily contaminated by sin.

4. They then adored vision as the Udgītha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; hence it views objects both [such as are] worthy and [such as are] not worthy of observation, being verily contaminated by sin.

5. Next they adored audition as the Udgītha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin; hence it hears both what are worthy of audition and what are not, being verily contaminated by sin.

6. Next they adored mind as the Udgītha; the Asuras contaminated it with sin, and hence it wills both good and evil, being verily contaminated by sin.

7. They then adored that which is the chief vital air, as the Udgītha; the Asuras approached it, and were destroyed as [is an earthen ball hit] against an impregnable rock.

8. Thus, verily, as an earthen ball is destroyed when hit against an impregnable rock, so doth he perish who wishes to contaminate with vice, him who thus knoweth [the chief vital air], as also he who injures him. He is as the impregnable rock.

9. Through it, man inhales not odours sweet or foul, being itself immaculate. Whatever is drunk or eaten by it supports the rest of the vital powers. At the last moment, deprived of support, they depart, and make men gape at the time of their death.

10. Angira adored it, the Udgītha, hence verily it is called Angirasa, [or] the essence of all the organs [Angas].

11. Lo, Brihaspati adored it, the Udgītha, hence verily it is called Brihaspati; speech is Brihati [a form of metre] whereof it is the source [pāti].

12. Āyāsya also adored it, the Udgītha, hence it is called Āyāsya; [or] that which proceeds from the mouth [Āsya].

13. So, did Vaka, son of Dalbha, know it, and glorify it for the gratification of the desires of the sages of Naimisha, for whom he officiated as a chanter [of the Sāma Veda].

14. He who, knowing it thus, adores this undecaying Udgītha, becomes the (most successful) solicitor [of boons]. This is spiritual [worship].

Section III.

1. Next (the worship of the Udgītha) as connected with gods:-He who dispenseth heat is the Udgītha. Let him be adored. For rising he singeth for the welfare of the creation; rising he dispelleth the dread of gloom. He, who knows him thus, becomes a destroyer of the fear of gloom.

2. Verily this [the sun] and that [the chief vital air] are alike; this is warm as well as that; this may be called transitive; that is transitive and retransitive; therefore let this and that be adored as the Udgītha.

3. Moreover, let Vyāna be adored as the Udgītha. That [function] by which (breath) is respired is Prana, that by which [it] is inspired is Apāna, and the interval of the two is Vyāna, which is speech. Therefore speech is articulated irrespective of inspiration and expiration.

4. That which is speech is Rik, therefore do [men] articulate the Rik without inspiring or respiring. That which is Rik is Sāma, hence is it chanted without inspiring or respiring. That which is Sāma, is Udgītha, hence is it chanted without reference to inspiration or respiration.

5. Moreover, all other mighty actions, such as the production of fire by friction, running a course, or stringing a strong bow, are performed without reference to inspiration or respiration, therefore is the Vyāna worshipped as the Udgītha.

6. Next verily let the letters of the [word] Udgītha be adored as the Udgītha. Respiration [Prana] is "Ut," for men attain the power of rising from respiration; speech
(Vāk) is "Gi," for vāk and gira, are said to be synonymous;-"tha" is aliment, for verily, everything is supported by food [sthitam].
7. The heaven (dyau) is Ut, the atmosphere [antariksha] is Gi, and the earth (prithivī) is Tha. The sun (Āditya) is Ut, the wind (Vāyu) is Gi, and fire (Agni) is Tha. The Sāma Veda is Ut, the Yajur Veda Gi, and the Rig Veda Tha. For him who, thus knowing, adores the letters of the Udgītha as the Udgītha, speech itself yields its wealth, and the adorer obtains alimental treasure and the power to consume the same.

8.  Now, then, that which yields desirable objects, {will be disclosed.] What are worthy of meditation should be thus adored:-the Sāma hymn by which the adorer is to glorify should be enquired into.

9. The Rig hymns in which they [the Sāma hymns] occur, the Sages, who first promulgated them, and the Devas glorified by those hymns, should also be reflected upon.

10. The metre with which he is to glorify, the praise with which he is to eulogize,

11. And the quarter facing which he is to eulogize, should also be reflected upon.

12. Lastly, approaching his own spirit, and calmly reflecting on one’s object, let him eulogize. With whatever object he singeth-verily with whatever object he singeth-fruition doth immediately follow.

Section IV.

1. Om, this letter should be adored, Om is recited. Its description.

2. The Devas, dreading death, adopted the threefold knowledge of the Vedas. They shielded themselves with psalms. The psalms are called chandas, because the Devas shielded (achchhādayan) themselves therein.

3. As Fishermen look at fish in water so did Death behold them in the Rig, Yajur and Sāma hymns. They, apprised of it, forsaking the Vedas, of a truth betook to the asylum of Voice-Svara.

4. In reciting the Rig hymns Om is articulated (Svarati), so in the Yajus and Sāma, therefore indeed, is this letter [the Udgītha] possessing immortality and safety, called Svara: Adopting its support the gods became immortal and secure.

5. He who, knowing it thus, praiseth this letter, obtains the immortal and secure letter Svara, and obtaining it, like unto the Devas, becomes immortal.

Section V.

1. Verily that which is Udgītha, is Pranava, and the Pranava is the Udgītha. The Āditya in truth is the Udgītha-the Pranava, for it moves resounding Om.

2. "Verily I sang in praise of the sun," said Kaushitaki, to his son, "therefore have I thee alone. Know the rays and thou shalt obtain a numerous progeny. "This is the adoration of Om as related to physical powers.

3. Next as connected with the Spirit. Verily the chief life is to be adored as the Udgītha, for, resounding Om, it proceedeth.

4. "Verily I sang in praise of that," [the chief life] said Kaushitaki to his son, "Do thou sing in praise of it as manifold, praying for numerous progeny."

5. He verily, who knows the Udgītha to be the Pranava and the Pranava to be the Udgītha, reconciles by the rituals of the Hotā, the errors of the Udgāthā,-verily reconciles the errors of the Udgāthā.

Section VI.

1. This [earth] verily is the Rig and fire Sāma. The Sāma rests on the Rig, and therefore doth the chanter of the Sāma Veda call the Rig the upholder of the Sāma. Verily the earth is Sā, and fire Ama, whence come Sāma.

2. Verily the sky is Rig, and the wind Sāma. The Sāma rests on the Rig, therefore doth the chanter of the Sāma Veda, call Rig the upholder of the Sāma. Verily the sky is Sā, and wind Ama, whence comes Sāma.

3. Verily the heaven (Dviv) is Rig and the Sun, Sāma. The Sāma rests on the Rig, therefore doth the reciter of the Sāma Veda, etc. etc. as before.

4. Verily the Stars are Rig and the moon is Sāma, the Sāma rests, etc. etc. as before.

5. The whiteness of the sun is Rig, and its darkness-deep darkness-is Sāma. The latter rest on the former, therefore doth the reciter of the Sāma Veda call the Rig the upholder of the Sāma.

6. The brightness of the sun, that is the white light of the sun is Sa that which is black-very black-is Ama, whence comes Sāma. That resplendent male of golden hair and whiskers, whose whole body even unto the nails is of gold, whom we behold in the interior of the sun,

7. Whose eyes are like unto lotuses, red as the orb of the rising god of day, is called Ut. He verily is above [Udgāthā]-all sin. He indeed ascends above all sin, who knows Him thus.

8. The Rig and the Sāma are his joints, hence is He the Udgītha, and therefore in chanting the Udgītha, doth the chanter
become Udgāthā, for he sings in praise of Ut. He rules over all the regions above the sun, and over all who desire the abode of gods. Thus far on the adoration of the Deity with reference to physical powers.

Section VII.

1. Now with reference to self. Speech is Rig, and Life, Sāma. On that [speech alias] Big rests the [life alias] Sāma, therefore is the Big said to be the upholder of the Sāma. Speech is Sā, and life Ama, whence Sāma.

2. The eyes are Big, and their reflection, Sāma. On the [eyes alias] Big rests the [reflection alias] Sāma, therefore is the Big said to be the upholder of the Sāma. The eyes are Sa and the reflection Ama, whence Sāma.

3. The ears are the Big, and the mind, Sāma. On those [ears alias] Big rests the [mind alias] Sāma, therefore is the Big said to be the upholder of the Sāma. The ears are Sa and the mind Ama, whence Sāma.

4. Next, that which is the white light of the eyes is Rig, and its black-deep black-rays are the Sāma. On that [white light alias] the Big rests [the black rays alias] the Sāma, therefore is the Big said to be the upholder of the Sāma. Now the white light of the eyes is Sa, and that which is black -very black-is Ama, whence Sāma.

5. Next, the Male which is seen in the interior of the eyes is the Big and the Sāma. He is the Uktha, He the Yajus, He Brahma. His figure is the figure of Brahma; the joints of the one are the joints of the other, and the name of the one that of the other.

6. He is the lord of all that are within the scope of the eyes and of those who long for worldly advancement. Whatever songs are sung with the accompaniment of the Vinā are due to Him; He is the lord of wealth.

7. He, who knowing all these, sings in praise of the Sāma, verily sings in praise of both. Through that he obtains a hereafter and the regions of the gods,

8. and through this, all the regions below his sight and all worldly prospects. Therefore should the singer of the Udgītha, who knows all this, say [unto those who know not] :

9. " [Say,] what are thy wishes? I shall pray for the same. “He, who knowing all this, sings in praise of the Sāma, becomes a sovereign soliciter of boons.

Section VIII.

1. Verily, three [persons] were skilled in the Udgītha; Śilaka son of Śālābat, Chaikitāyaṇa the progeny of Dalbha, and Pravāhaṇa son of Jivala. They said [to each other], "We are proficient in the Udgitha, and are prepared to reveal its knowledge, [if it pleaseth you]

2. Saying this, they seated themselves. Pravāhaṇa son of Jivala said; "You, Venerable Sirs, both of you begin the discourse, that I may listen to such Brāhmaṇa speakers."

3. Of them, Śilaka son of Śālābat thus addressed Chaikitāyaṇa the progeny of Dalbha, “if it pleaseth you, I shall ask some questions." "Be it so," said the other.

4. [Śilaka enquired]. "What is the asylum of the Sāma?"
"Voice" [replied Chaikitāyaṇa]. "What of voice ?" "Breath."" Of Breath?" "Aliment." "Of Aliment?" "Water."

5. "Of Water?" "That sphere." "And of that sphere?""We shall not exceed the heavens, for on them we rest the Sāma, which is likened to the heavens in its eulogy."

6. Then did Śilaka son of Śālābat address Chaikitāyaṇa the progeny of Dalbha: "Verily, irreverent is thy Sāma. O Dalbha, [when you describe it to be so august] were one [who fully understands it] to say, ' Let thy head fall off [thy neck] it would verily so happen."

7. "Then I should like to know it better from you, Venerable Sir." "Be it so," said the other." What [say you] is the asylum of that sphere?" "This sphere," said [Śilaka, alluding to the earth]. "And what is the asylum of this sphere?" "We should not exceed this receptacle, for on it we rest the Sāma, whence it is eulogized as the receptacle."

8. Unto him said Pravāhaṇa son of Jivala: "Impermanent is thy Sāma, O son of Śālābat, and [when thou describest it as otherwise] were one to say “Let thy head fall of thy neck,” forthwith would it drop down." "Let me then learn it of thee, O Venerable Sir." "Be it so," responded the other.

Section IX.

1. "What is the end of this sphere?" "The sky," said the other, [and continued] "all these creations proceed from, and end in, the sky. The sky is the senior of all these, it is the great receptacle."

2. It is the most excellent Udgītha, it is endless. He, who knowing thus, adores the most excellent Udgītha, attains to most excellent regions, and his [life] becomes most excellent.

3. Atidhanvā son of Saunaka, having thus explained it [the Udgītha] to Udaraśāndilya, observed: "The career of such of your descendants as will know the Udgītha thus, will continue most excellent in this world.

4. "As also hereafter therefore the career of those who, knowing thus, adore [the Udgītha] will become most excellent in this world, as also in worlds to come,-verily in worlds to come.

Section X.

1. Ushasti son of Chakra with his virgin wife, forsaking Kuru, lived in great distress in Ibhyagrāma [a village inhabited by an elephant-driver].

2. Of him [the elephant-driver whilst] eating some vile beans, he begged [for food.] Unto him, said the elephant-driver: "I have none other than what you see before me."

3. "Give me of the same," replied he. The elephant-driver gave him thereof, and also offered him some drink. Ushasti said; "[Were I to take that] I would swallow the remnant of another’s drink."

4. "Is not that also an offal?" [replied the elephant-driver, alluding to the beans]. "I cannot live without eating that," said Ushasti, " but drink I can command at pleasure."

5. Having eaten thereof, he presented the remainder to his wife. She had before partaken [of the same, and therefore] took it and laid it by.

6. On the [following] morning, rising from his bed, he [the husband] exclaimed: "Alas! If I could [now] obtain a little food, I could earn some wealth. A king is performing a sacrifice in the neighbourhood, he would surely employ me to perform all its functions."

7. To him said his wife; " Here are the beans, [take them] and, eating thereof, quickly proceed to the sacrifice."

8. Arrived there, he took his seat at the place of sacrifice before the chanters of the Udgītha, and then thus addressed the chanters of praise:

9. "O chanters of praise, should ye eulogize Him who is the presiding deity of all praise without knowing his nature, your heads would be lopped off."

10. Then [turning] to the chanters of the Udgītha, [Udgātāra,] said; "O ye chanters of the Udgītha, should ye chant [in praise of] Him who is the presiding deity of the Udgītha,your heads would verily be lopped off."

11. And then thus addressed he to the chanters of the Pratihāra, saying, "and ye, O chanters of the Pratihāra, should ye chant [in praise of] Him who is the presiding deity of all Pratihāra without knowing his nature, your heads would surely be lopped off." They, [in dread of losing their heads] resigning their duty, sat in silence.

Section XI.

1. Then said the institutor of the sacrifice unto him; "I wish to know thee, O Lord.” "I am Ushasti, son of Chakra," replied the other.

2. He [the king] rejoined; "I searched for thee, O Lord, to officiate [at this sacrifice], but finding thee not, engaged others.

3. "[Do] thou, O Lord, [perform] the several parts of my sacrifice?" "Be it so," replied the other; "let these men, with my sanction, recite the hallelujah. Do thou give me the wealth which thou wouldst have given unto them." "Even be it so," said the institutor of the sacrifice.
4. Next, verily, the chanters of praise approached him, [and said] "You have said unto us, O venerable Sir, 'O chanters of praise, should ye eulogize Him who is the presiding deity of all praise, your heads would be lopped off;’ will you now tell us who is that Deity?"

5. "Life," replied the other. "Verily all these created objects merge into Life, and from it are they developed; it is the Deity who presides over all praises. Had ye eulogized Him without knowing his nature, your heads would surely have been lopped off, as I said unto ye."

6. Next did the Udgātās approach him, and thus address: "You have said unto us, O venerable Sir, 'should ye reciters of the Udgītha, chant in praise of him who is the presiding deity of all praise, your heads would surely be lopped of., [Will you now tell us] who is that Deity ?"

7. "The sun," [Āditya], said the other. "Verily all these created objects sing in praise of the sun as the highest object; he is the Deity who presides over the Udgītha. Had ye chanted the Udgītha in his praise without knowing him, your heads would surely have been lopped off, as I said unto ye."

8. Next came unto him the Pratihāras and thus addressed, "You have said unto us, O venerable Sir, 'should ye chant the Pratihāra in praise of him who is the presiding Deity of all Pratihāras, O reciters of the Pratihāra, without knowing his nature, your heads would surely be lopped off., [Will you now tell us,] who is that Deity?"

9. "Aliment" [Anna], said the other; "all these created beings live by the consumption of food; it is the Deity president of the Pratihāras had ye chanted the Pratihāras without knowing Him, your heads would surely have been lopped off, as I said unto ye."

Section XII.

1. Next the canine Udgītha. Verily, Vaka son of Dalbha or [alias] Glāba son of Mitrā had gone forth to study the Vedas.

2. [In mercy] to him appeared a white dog. Other dogs approached it and said: "O Lord, pray for abundance of food for us; we wish to consume the same."

3. To them, said the white dog: "Come ye here unto me to-morrow morning." At the appointed time did Vaka son of Dalbha-[alias] Glāba son of Mitrā-act up to the injunction.
4. As those who wish to pray through the Vahishpavamāna, [hymns,] collecting together, proceed [to their work], so did they [the little dogs] come together and, taking their seats, bark out:

5. "Om! Let us eat. Om! Let us drink. Om! May the resplendent sun, who showers on us rain and supports all animated beings, grant us food. O Lord of food, deign to bestow food unto us; do deign to grant us food!”

Section XIII.

1. Verily, this earth is the particle Hau, the wind Hai, and the moon Atha; the soul is Iha, and fire I.

2. The sun [is] U; the hymns of welcome, [Nihava] E; the Vishwadevas are Auhoi; Prajāpati is Hin ; Life is Swara Aliment is YA; Speech is Virata;

3. And, thirteenthly, the Aniructa or undecided hymns are the indistinct particle Hun.

4. Unto him speech grants its blessings, and he becomes the milker of speech and the owner and consumer of aliment, who knows-verily knows-this Upanishad of the Sāma Vēda, as herein described.


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