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CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD | Chapter 5

CHĀNDOGYA UPANISHAD.

FIFTH CHAPTER

Section I.

1. Om! Verily he becomes the eldest and greatest who knows the Eldest and Greatest (jesṭa-sresṭha.) Life is verily the Eldest and Greatest.

2. He who knows that which is the Envelope [of the world; Basisṭha] becomes the protector of his people. Speech is verily the Envelope.

3. Verily, he becomes firmly placed in this and the next world who knows the Steady [Pratisṭha.] Verily vision is the Steady.

4. He who knows the Sampat [fortune,] obtains whatever is desirable in this or the other world. Audition is verily the Sampat.

5. He who knows the Receptacle [Āyatana] verily becomes the receptacle of his people. The mind is verily the Receptacle.

6. Now, these organs of sense quarrelled about their [respective] superiority, each proclaiming: "I am the chief; I am the chief."

7. They, the organs, repaired to the Patriarch Prajāpati and enquired: "Lord, which of us is the chief?" Unto them said he: "Of you, he, whose departure makes the body to appear as worthless, is the chief."

8. Of a truth, Speech departed [from the body] j it returned after a year’s absence and said [to the other organs]:
"How did ye survive my separation?"
"In the same way," replied they," in which the dumb, without speaking, breathes through [the agency of] his life, seeth by his eyes, heareth by his ears, and reflecteth in his mind."
Speech resumed his place.

9. Verily, Vision departed [from the body] ; it returned after a year’s absence and enquired [of the other organs]:
"How did ye survive my separation?"
"In the same way," replied they, "in which the blind, without seeing, breathes through [the agency of] his life, speaketh through the organs of speech, heareth by his ears, and reflecteth in his mind." Vision resumed his place.

10. Of a truth, Audition departed [from the body] j it returned after a year's absence and enquired [of the other organs]:
"How did ye survive my separation?" "In the same way," replied they, " in which the deaf, without hearing, breathes through [the agency of] his life, speaketh through the organs of speech, seeth by his eyes, and relecteth in his mind." Audition resumed his place.

11. Of a truth Mind departed [from the body]; it returned after a year's absence and enquired [of the other organs :]
"How did ye survive my separation?" "In the same way," replied they,"in which an infant, without possessing the power of reflection, breathes through [the agency] of his life, speaketh through the organs of speech, seeth by his eyes, and heareth by his ears."
Mind resumed his place.

12. Next verily did Life attempt to depart; and in the very attempt, as a mighty charger, when whipped, plucks out from their places all the pegs to which its feet may be tied, did it dislodge all the organs of sense. They approached it and said: "Lord, remain in thy place; thou art the greatest of us all; pray, depart not."

13. Next of a truth Speech said unto it [Life]:
"The quality of enveloping all, which belongeth to me, is due to thee."
Then did Vision say unto it: " The quality of steadiness, which belongeth to me, is due to thee."

14. Then did Audition say unto it: "The quality of being fortunate, which belongeth to me, is due to thee."
Then did Mind say unto it: " the quality of containing all, which belongeth to me, is due to thee."

15. Verily neither speech, nor vision, nor audition, nor mind is worthy of its name. Those functions all belong to life; from life proceedeth all.

Section II.

1. Of a truth it [life] enquired: "What should be my food ?"
They replied: "whatever is food for beasts and birds is meet food for thee.” Therefore, verily all that is eatable belongeth to life; hence ana [exertion] is its self-evident name. For him who knoweth this, verily there is nothing that is not appropriate food.

2. Of a truth it enquired: "What shall be my raiment?"
"Water:" replied they. Hence people at their meals begin and end with water. It [always] obtains its raiment: it never remains naked.

3. Satyakāma son of Jabālā, having explained the above to Gośrutī son of Vyāghrapāda, said: "Were you to explain this to the withered stump of a tree, it would shoot forth new leaves and branches."

4. Now, should anybody wish for greatness, having observed the usual restrictions on the day of the new moon, he should, on the night of the full moon, husk [the seeds of] all [such] annuals [as are available in or about a town]; beat the same with curds and honey, then pour [a spoonful of] the mixture into the fire in lieu of clarified butter, saying:
"May this prove acceptable to the eldest and greatest (Jyēsṭḥāya Śresṭḥāya Swāhā)." and preserve in the mixing pot whatever might remain in the oblation spoon.

5. Then offering an oblation to the fire with the mixture in lieu of clarified butter, saying: " May this prove acceptable to Vasistha: "(Vasisthāya Swāhā) he should preserve in the mixing pot, whatever might remain in the oblation spoon.
Then offering an oblation to the fire with it in lieu of clarified butter, saying: 'May this prove acceptable to Pratisṭha,"
(Pratisṭhāya Swāhā), he should preserve in the mixing pot whatever might remain in the oblation spoon.
Then offering an oblation to the fire with it in lieu of clarified butter, saying:
"May this prove acceptable to Sampat," (Sampadēh Swāhā) he should preserve in the mixing pot whatever might remain in the oblation spoon. Then offering an oblation to the fire with it in lieu of clarified butter, saying: "May this prove acceptable to Āyatana," (Āyatanaya Swāhā,) he should preserve in the mixing pot whatever might remain in the oblation spoon.

6. Next, approaching the fire and taking the [the remains of the] mixture in his joined hands, he should slowly repeat: "Thy name is ama! All this abide by him! He is the eldest, the greatest, the king of all, the lord of all! May he make me the eldest and greatest, and bestow on me kingdoms and empires! I shall become everything!"

7. Then while repeating the verse: "We long for the best and all-sustaining food of that god, [who is] the prime cause of all, [that we may] quickly meditate on [the soul of] that adorable [being],”he should take a mouthful at the end of every foot [of the verse] and drink the residue at the end.

8. Then washing the vessel in which the offering was kept which is shaped like a kansa (a musical instrument) or a chamasa (spoon), he should lie down on a deer skin, or on the ground behind the fire, without speaking, and careful so as to avoid dreaming. Should he in such a state dream of women, he may know that his sacrifice has proved fruitful.

9. Hence is the verse: "Whenever in course of the performance of a ceremony the performer with some worldly object in view, dreameth of women he should rest assured from the dream-verily from that dream-that the ceremony has proved fruitful."

Section III.

1. Of a truth, Setaketu Aruneyaf repaired to the court
[of the king] of Panchala. Unto him said Pravahana Jaivali :J " Boy, has thy father given thee instruction?" "Yes,Sir, he has," replied he.

2. [Jaivali enquired]: "Know ye where men rise to from this earth?" "No, Sir," [replied he]. "Know ye how they return?"
"No, Sir," [replied lie]. "Know ye where the Deva Yāna, and the Pitri Yāna divide?" "No, Sir," [replied he],

3. " Know ye why yonder region [where men rise to after death,] does not ill up?" "No, Sir," [replied he]. "Know ye why the fluids of the fifth oblation are called Purusha?"
"No, Sir," [I know not, replied he].

4. "How came you then to say that you have got instruction? how can you say he is instructed who knoweth not [what I have enquired]?" He [the boy] returned sorrowfully to his parent and said: "Verily, without giving me instruction, lord, you said that you have.

5. "That wretched king asked me five questions, and I could not answer even one of them."
He [the father] said, "I know not the reply to even one of the questions you have put to me; had I known them why should I have refused thee?"

6. He [the father] of the Gautama gotra repaired to the house of the king. On his arrival, the king performed the duties of hospitality. In the morning he [of the Gautama gotra] appeared in the king's court. Unto him said [the king]:
"O Gautama, ask for what you think to be the best of all worldly objects."
He replied: "Let those worldly objects remain with thee, [I seek them not] : O king, explain unto me what you asked of my son."

7. He [the king] was afflicted; he ordered him, saying:
"Remain with me for a time." He [also] said: "Since you have thus enquired, and inasmuch as no Brahman ever knew it before, hence of all people in the world, the Kshatriyas alone have the right of imparting instruction on this subject."
He further continued:

Section IV.

1. "Verily, O Gautama, yonder region is fire; of that fire the sun is the fuel, the light of the sun is its smoke, the days are its flame, the moon is its charcoal, and the stars are its scintillations.

2. "On that fire the Devas offer their faith in oblation; therefrom proceedeth the Soma rājā.

Section V.

1. "O Gautama, Parjannya is verily fire, the wind is its fuel, the cloud is its smoke, the lightning its lame, the thunderbolt its charcoal, and the rolling of clouds its scintillations.

2. "On that fire the Devas offer the Soma rājā in oblation, and therefrom proceedeth rain.

Section VI.

1. "O Gautama, the earth is verily fire, the year is its fuel, the sky its smoke, the night its lame, the quarters are its charcoal, and the intermediate quarters its scintillations.

2. "On that fire, the Devas offer the rain in oblation, thence proceedeth aliment.

Section VII.

1. "O Gautama, man is verily fire; of that fire speech is the fuel, breath is the smoke, the tongue is the lame, the eyes are charcoal and the ears scintillations.

2. "On that fire, the Devas offer the aliment in oblation, whence proceedeth productive power.

Section VIII.

1. " O Gautama, woman is verily fire.
*******
2. "On that fire the Devas offer their productive power in oblation, thence followeth conception.

Section IX.

1. "This [is the reply] to [your query] 'Why is the water of the fifth oblation called Purusha.
The being [thus originated] after lying in the amnion for about ten months takes his birth.

2. "After birth he lives to the end of the allotted period of his life. On his death and transition to a hereafter, his sons carry his corpse away for consignment to the fire, whence he came and was born.

Section X.

1. "Of them [men so created] those who know this [origin of the Purusha] and those who worship God with faith and penance, in a desert, repair after death to [the regent of] light [Archi]; thence to [that of] the day [Aha], thence to [that of] the light half of the moon, thence to [that of] the six months during which the sun has a northern declination [Uttarāyana],

2. "Thence to [that of] the year; thence to [that of] the sun; thence to [that of] the moon; and thence to [that of] the lightning; thence an inhuman being takes them to [the region of] Brahma. This is the way to the gods [Deva Yāna.]

3. "Now those villagers who accomplish their religious duties by the performance of sacrifices (ishta), by the dedication of tanks, wells, halting-places, etc. (purta), and by charity beyond the boundary of the altar (datta), are borne, after death, to [the regent of] darkness [dhuma.] From [the regent of] darkness [they proceed] to [that of] the night; from [that of] the night to [that of] the dark fortnight; from the dark fortnight to [that of] the six months during which the sun has a southern declination; from the six months of the winter solstice they attain not the year;

4. "[But] thence [they go] to [the region of] the Pitris from [the region of] the Pitris [they go] to the sky, and from the sky to the moon. That moon is the king Soma. They are the food of the gods. The gods do eat them.

5. "After remaining there for such time as the effects of their actions last, they return by the road to be prescribed, i. e. thence to the sky, and from the sky to the wind; after becoming wind they become smoke, and from the smoke the scattered cloud is formed.

6. "From the scattered cloud proceeds condensed or raining cloud, which rains. From that proceeds rice, corn, annuals, trees, sesame, lentils and the like. Now, verily it is difficult to descend therefrom. Those who eat rice and procreate, become manifold.

7. "Thereof he, whose conduct is good, quickly attains to some good existence, such as that of a Brāhmaṇa, a Kshatriya or a Vaisya. Next, he who is viciously disposed, soon assumes the form of some inferior creature; such as that of a dog, a hog, or a Chaṇḍāla.

8. "Now, those who have not come to either of these two ways-become small creatures of repeated birth. They are born and they die. This is the third place or 'receptacle’. This is the reason why the place [where men go to after death] filleth not. This is the reason why [this career] should be detested: thereof is the verse:

9. "The robber of gold, the drunkard who drinks spirit, the defiler of his master’s bed, and the murderer of a Brahman, are debased and filthy, and fifthly, so is he who associates with these four."

10. Now, he, who thus knoweth the five fires, never becomes affected by sin, even if he associate with these vicious people. He remaineth pure and holy and of virtuous region, who knoweth-verily who knoweth-this.

Section XI.

1. Prāchīnasāla son of Upamanyu, Satyayajna son of Pulusha, Indradyumna son of Bhāllaba, Jana son of Sārkarāksha, and Budila son of Aśvatarāśa were great householders and knowers of the Veda. They met together and discussed:
"Which is our soul and which is Brahma?"

2. [Being unable to come to a conclusion]: They decided, "Let us go to Uddālaka son of Aruṇa, who has lately learned of the soul Vaiśvānara." They repaired to him.

3. Of a truth he [Uddālaka] resolved [in his mind]: "These great householders and knowers of the Vēda will question me, but I shall not be able to explain all their queries, I should therefore point out to them some other tutor."

4. He said to them: "Sirs, Let us go to Aśwapatī, son of Kekaya, who hath lately learned of the soul Vaiśvānara." Of a truth they went to him.

5. He [Aśwapatī] caused [his dependants] to receive them with due respect. On the morrow, appearing before them, [and offering some wealth] he [asked them to accept thereof, but being refused and thinking that he had committed some fault] said: "There is no thief in my kingdom, nor misers, nor drunkards, nor neglecters of the household fire, nor ignorant people, nor adulterers much less adulteresses,"
and [on being told that they sought not wealth, thinking that they refused, because his offering was insufficient,] continued : "Venerable Sirs, I wish to perform a sacrifice, and at that sacrifice the allowance of an officiating priest shall be offered to each of you. Remain with me Sirs [for a time]."

6. They replied: "Give that to your guests what they seek: you know of the soul Vaiśvānara, explain that unto us."

7. He answered them: "I shall tell you [about it] tomorrow morning.
"On the morrow they came to him, bringing the usual sacrificial woods with them. Without investing them with the Brāhmanic thread, he said:

Section XII.

1. "O Aupamanyava, to which soul do you offer your adorations?"
"To the heaven [diva], O king, O Lord:"[replied he.] "The soul, "returned the first, " whom you adore is verily the glory [Sutejā] of the Universal Soul (Vaiśvānara,) hence it is that the juice of the moon plant is seen to be well and fully expressed in your family;

2. And you consume food [with good appetite] and behold dear objects, [for] he consumeth food [with good appetite] and beholdeth dear objects, and his race becomes possessed of Vedic glory, who thus adoreth the soul Vaiśvānara. [The heaven] is verily the head of that Soul. Your head would [however] have fallen off [thy neck,] had you not come unto me."

Section XIII.

1. He next addressed Satyayajna son of Pulusha, saying;
"O chief, to which soul do you offer your adorations?" "To the sun, O Lord, O king" [replied he. Aśwapatī] said, "The soul, whom you adore, is the all-pervading form [Viśvarupa] of the Universal Soul; hence many forms (conveniences) are seen in your family;”

2. "Mules yoked to carts, follow you; [even] your maids are adorned with necklaces; you consume food [with good appetite] and behold dear objects; (for) he consumeth [well his] food, and beholdeth dear objects, and his race becomes possessed of Vedic glory, who thus adoreth the Universal Soul. The sun is the eye of that Soul. You would have [however] become blind had you not come unto me."

Section XIV.

He then said to Indradyumna Bhāllaveya: "O descendant of Vyāghrapāda! to which soul do you offer your adorations?" "To the winds, O Lord, O king [replied he. Aśwapatī] said:
"The soul whom you adore is [one of] the various courses [prithakvartmā] of the Universal Soul; hence various armies submit to you, and varied trains of chariots follow you,

2. And you consume food (with good appetite) and behold dear objects (for) he consumeth [well his] food and beholdeth dear objects, and his race becomes possessed of Vedic glory, who thus adoreth the Universal Soul. The wind is the breath of that Soul. Your breath would have [however] passed from you, had you not come unto me."

Section XV.

1. He then said to Jana, "O Sārkarāksha, to which soul do you offer your adorations?"
"To the sky, O Lord, O king:" [replied he. Aśwapatī] said, " The soul, whom you adore is the multiform manifestation [Vahula] of the Universal Soul, hence are you full of wealth and tenants;

2. And hence do you consume food [with good appetite] and behold dear objects; for he consumeth [well his] food and beholdeth dear objects, and his race becomes possessed of Vedic glory, who thus adoreth the Universal Soul. The sky is the trunk of that Soul. Had you not [however] come unto me, thy trunk would have dried up."

Section XVI.

1. He then said to Budila Aśvatarāśa, "O Vyāghrapāda, to which soul do you offer your adorations?"
"To water, O Lord, O king," [replied he. Aśwapatī] said: "The soul whom you adore is the wealth [rayi] of the Universal Soul; hence are you wealthy and healthy,

2. And hence do you consume food (with a good appetite) and behold dear objects; [for] he consumeth [well his] food and beholdeth dear objects, and his race becomes possessed of Vedic glory who thus adoreth the Universal Soul. The water is the pelvic region of that soul. Had you not [however] come to me, your pelvic region would have been severed from your body."

Section XVII.

1. He then said to Uddālaka Aruṇa,
"O Gautama, to which soul do you offer your adorations?" "To the earth, O king, O Lord [replied he. Aśwapatī] said, "the soul whom you adore is the feet of the Universal Soul, hence are you well established in descendants and cattle.

2. "And hence do you consume food [with a good appetite] and behold dear objects; [for] he consumeth [well his] food and beholdeth dear objects, and his race becomes possessed of Vedic glory, who thus adoreth the Universal Soul. The earth is the feet of that Soul. Had you not [however] come to me your feet would have lost their energy."

Section XVIII.

1. Next, addressing them all, he said,  You consume food, knowing the Universal Soul to be many; but he, who adoreth that Universal Soul which pervadeth the heaven and the earth, and is the principal object indicated by [the pronoun] I, consumeth food everywhere and in all regions, in every form and in every faculty.

2. "Verily of that All-pervading Soul, the heaven is the head, the sun is the eye, the wind is the breath, the sky is the trunk, the moon is the fundament, and the earth is the feet. The altar is His breast, the sacrificial grass constitutes the hair of His body, the household or Gārhapatya fire forms His heart, the Annāhārya - pachana fire forms His mind, and the Āhavanīya fire His face.

Section XIX.

1. "Therein, whatever food is first brought, that forms the first oblation. He (the wise) who knows it, the first mouthful, to be the first oblation, should offer it with the words,
"I offer it to Prana" [Praṇāya Swāhā]. Life (Prāṇa) is thereby satisfied.

2. By the satisfaction of Prāṇa vision is satisfied; by the satisfaction of vision the sun is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the sun the heaven is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the heaven whatever depends upon the sun and the heaven is satisfied; through its satisfaction [the performer of the sacrifice] is satisfied with [the possession of] descendants, cattle, food, splendour and Vedic glory.

Section XX.

1. "Now, that which is the second oblation should be offered with [the words]"
I offer this to Vyāna," [Vyānāya Swāhā]. Thereby is Vyāna satisfied.

2. "By the satisfaction of Vyāna audition is satisfied; by the satisfaction of audition the moon is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the moon the quarters are satisfied; by the satisfaction of the quarters whatever depends upon the moon and the quarters is satisfied; through its satisfaction [the performed of the sacrifice] is satisfied with [the possession of] descendants, cattle, food, splendour and Vedic glory.

Section XXI.

1. "Now that which is the third oblation should be offered with [the words]
"I offer this to Apāna" [Apanāya Swāhā], Thereby is Apāna satisfied.

2. "By the satisfaction of Apāna speech is satisfied; by the satisfaction of speech Agni is satisfied; by the satisfaction of Agni the earth is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the earth whatever depends upon the earth and Agni is satisfied; through its satisfaction [the performer of the sacrifice] is satisfied with [the possession of] descendants, cattle, food, splendour, and Vedic glory.

Section XXII.

1. "Now that which is the fourth oblation should be offered with [the words]"
I offer this to Samāna," [Samānāya Swāhā].
Thereby is Samāna satisfied.

2. "By the satisfaction of Samāna the mind is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the mind the cloud is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the cloud the lightning is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the lightning whatever depends upon the lightning and the cloud is satisfied; through its satisfaction [the performer of the sacrifice] is satisfied with [the possession of] descendants, cattle, food, splendour and Vedic glory.

Section XXIII.

1. "Now, that which is the fifth oblation should be offered with [the words]
'I offer this to Udāna, [Udānāya Swāhā]. Thereby is Udāna satisfied

2. "By the satisfaction of Udāna the wind [Vāyu] is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the wind the sky is satisfied; by the satisfaction of the sky whatever depends upon the sky and the wind is satisfied; through its satisfaction, [the performer of the sacrifice] is satisfied with [the possession of] descendants, cattle, food, splendour and Vedic glory.

Section XXIV.

1. "He, who without knowing this, performs a fire-sacrifice, [has the same reward as he] who, forsaking burning coals, pours his oblation upon ashes.

2. "Next, with regard to him who knowing this performs a fire-sacrifice, the sacrifice is complete everywhere and in every region, in every form and in every faculty [of the body].

3. As reed-tops when cast on fire [readily] burn to ashes, so do the sins of him who, knowing all this, performs a fire-sacrifice.

4. Therefore verily, were he, who knows this, to offer the remnant of his food [even] to a Chaṇḍāla, he would effect an offering to the All-pervading Soul: therefore is the verse:

5. "As in common life, hungry children look up to their mothers, so do all creatures look up to the fire-sacrifice (Agni hotra)-verily they look up to the fire-sacrifice."


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