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CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD | Chapter 3

CHĀNDOGYA UPANISHAD.

THIRD CHAPTER.

Section I.

1. Hari, Om! Verily the sun is the honey of the gods. The heaven is the arched bamboo, [whence hangeth pendant] the atmosphere [like a] hive: the vapours [floating therein] are the eggs.

2. Of the sun the eastern beams are the eastern honey-cells; the Rig hymns are the manufacturers of honey; [the ceremonies enjoined by] the Rig Veda form the lowers, and the fluids [used in their performance] are nectars. Verily those Rig hymns

3. Reflected on the ceremonies of the Rig Vēda. From them, the reflected, proceeded forth fame, splendour, sensations, power, aliment and such like essences.

4. They lowed and rested around the sun. Verily, thence proceedeth the redness of the sun.

Section II.

1. Now, its southern beams are verily the southern honey-cells; [therein] the Yajur hymns are the honey-makers; [the ceremonies enjoined by] the Yajur Veda form the lowers; and the fluids [used in their performance] are nectars.

2. Verily those Yajur hymns reflected on the [ceremonies enjoined by the] Yajur Veda. From them, the reflected, proceeded forth fame, splendour, sensations, power, aliment and such like essences.

3. They lowed and rested around the sun. Thence, verily, proceedeth the whiteness of the sun.

Section III.

1. Next, its western beams are verily the western honey-cells; [therein] the Sāma hymns are the honey-makers; [the ceremonies enjoined by] the Sāma Veda form the lowers, and the fluids [used in their performance] are nectars.

2. Verily those Sāma hymns reflected on the [ceremonies enjoined by the] Sāma Veda. From them, the reflected, issued forth fame, splendour, sensations, power, aliment and such like essences.

3. They flowed and rested around the sun. Thence, verily, proceedeth the dark coloured rays of the sun.

Section IV.

1. Now, the northern rays are verily the northern honey-cells; [therein] the Atharva Angirasa hymns are the honey-makers; [the ceremonies enjoined by] the Itihāsa and the Purana form the lowers, and the fluids [used in their performance] are nectars.

2. They, the Atharva Angirasa, reflected on the Itih6sa and the Purana. From them, the reflected, proceeded forth fame, splendour, sensations, power, aliment and such like essences.

3. They lowed and rested around the sun. Thence verily proceedeth the very dark rays of the sun.

Section V.

1. Next, the upward rays are verily the upper honey-cells; there the secret ordinances are the honey-makers; Brahmā is the lower, and its fluids are nectars.

2. They, the secret ordinances, reflected on Brahma. From it, the reflected, issued forth fame, splendour, sensations, power, aliment and such like essences.

3. They flowed and rested around the sun. Verily thence proceedeth the delusive opalescence in the centre of the sun. 

4. They, the different rays of the sun, are the essences of essences; the Vedas are the essences, and thereof are they the essences; -they are the nectars of nectars: the Vedas are nectars, and thereof are they the nectars.

Section VI.

1. Thereof the first named nectar is enjoyed by the Vashus with Agni at their head. Verily the Devas neither eat nor drink [of the same], they [only] gratify themselves by its sight.

2. They are quieted by the sight of those rays, they are excited thereby.

3. He, who thus knoweth the nectar, becoming one of the Vashus, and reflecting on the nectar with Agni before him, enjoyeth content. He is quieted by those rays; he is excited thereby.

4. He obtaineth the entire dominion of the Vashus which extends from the rising of the sun [in the east] to its setting [in the west].

Section VII.

1. Now, the second mentioned nectar is enjoyed by the Rudras, with Indra at their head. Verily the Devas neither eat nor drink [of the same], they [only] gratify themselves by its sight.

2. They are soothed by that appearance [of the sun], and by it are they excited.

3. He, who knoweth the nectar thus, becoming one of the Rudras and reflecting on the same with Indra before him, enjoyeth content. That appearance, doth pacify him, and thereby is he excited.

4. He obtaineth the dominion of the Rudras, which extends from the rising of the sun in the south to its setting in the north,- a period double that within which it riseth in the east and setteth in the west.

Section VIII.

1. Now, the third nectar is enjoyed by the Ādityas, with Varuna at their head. Verily the Devas neither eat nor drink [of the same], they [only] gratify themselves by its sight.

2. They are soothed by that appearance of the sun, and by it are they excited.

3. He, who knoweth the nectar thus, becoming one of the Ādityas, with Varuna before him, enjoyeth content. That appearance of the sun doth sooth him, and thereby is he excited.

4. He obtaineth the entire dominion of the Ādityas, which extends from the rising of the sun behind to its setting before, - a period double that within which it riseth in the south and sets in the north.

Section IX.

1. Now, the fourth nectar is enjoyed by the Maruts with Soma at their head. Verily, the Devas neither eat nor drink [of the same], they [only] gratify themselves by its sight.

2. They are verily soothed by that appearance of the sun, and by it are they excited.

3. He, who knoweth the nectar thus, becoming one of the Maruts, and reflecting on that nectar with Soma before him, enjoyeth content. He is soothed by that appearance of the sun, and by it is he excited.

4. He obtaineth the entire dominion of the Maruts, which extends from the rising of the sun in the north to its setting in the south,- a period double that within which it riseth behind and setteth before.

Section X.

1. Now, the fifth nectar is enjoyed by the Sādhyas with Brahma [Om] at their head. Verily the Devas neither eat nor drink [of the same], they [only] gratify themselves by its sight.

2. They are verily soothed by that appearance of the sun, and by it are they excited.

3. He, who knoweth the nectar thus, becoming one of the Sādhyas and reflecting on that nectar with Brahma before him, enjoyeth content. Verily he is soothed by that appearance [of the sun], and by it is he excited.

4. He obtaineth the entire dominion of the Sādhyas which extend from the rising of the sun above to its setting below, -  a period double that in which he riseth in the north and setteth in the south.

Section XI.

1. Next, beyond that, appearing above, He neither riseth nor setteth, but remaineth alone in the centre. Thereof is the verse:

2. "No; of a truth there is neither rising nor setting. [Bear ye witness] O Gods, that I may say nothing contradictory of that truthful Brahma!"

3. For him there is neither rising nor setting of the sun - for him there is one eternal day,-who possesseth this knowledge of Brahma.

4. Verily that knowledge was explained by Brahma to Prajāpati, and by Prajāpati to Manu, and by Manu to his descendants. This knowledge of Brahma was explained to one of the descendants Uddālaka Āruṇa, an eldest son, by his father.

5. This knowledge of Brahma should verily be explained by a father to his eldest son or to a worthy disciple;

6. But to none else. Were one to give this sea-girt sphere with all its treasures to the instructor, [in exchange of this knowledge] the latter would still be greater-greater by far [in value than the sphere.]

Section XII.

1. Verily all this creation is Gāyatri. Speech is Gāyatri; by speech is all this creation recited and preserved.

2. That Gāyatri is verily this earth. And on this earth are all creatures sustained; that they exceed not.

3. That which is the earth is likewise the body of the animated creation. In that body are the animal functions sustained; that they exceed not.

4. That which is the body is likewise the heart which is within it. In it are the animal functions sustained; that they exceed not.

5. That Gāyatri is verily composed of four feet, and possesseth six characteristics. Regarding it has this verse been recited:

6. "They [the creations] constitute the glories of the Gāyatri ; to which is the soul [Purusha] superior. He has the creation for his first foot, and his own immortal self constitutes the other three."

7. That Brahma, [i. e. the being indicated in the Gāyatri] is verily the space which surroundeth mankind. That which surroundeth mankind is of a truth the space which existeth within mankind.

8. That which existeth within mankind is of a truth the space which existed within the heart. It is omnipresent and eternal. He who knoweth this attains eternal and all-sufficient treasures.

Section XIII.

1. For that [space which is] within the heart there are five gates to heaven. Thereof the eastern gate is breath [prāṇa]; which is vision and that is Āditya [the sun]. That [Prana] is to be adored as the consumer of aliment and all glorious. Glorious and an [able] consumer of aliment doth he become who knoweth it thus.

2. Next, the southern aperture is Vyāna, which is audition, and that is the Moon. Believing it to be prosperity and fame let it be worshipped. He who knoweth it so, attaineth celebrity and prosperity.

3. Next, the western aperture is Apāna, it is speech, which is fire [Agni]. Believing it to be Vedic glory and aliment let it be worshipped. He who knoweth it so, attaineth plenty and Vedic glory.

4. Next, that which is the northern aperture, is Samāna, which is the mind, which is cloud. Believing it to be reputation and beauty, let it be worshipped. He who knoweth it so, attaineth reputation and beauty.

5. Next, that which is the upper aperture, is Udāna; which is the wind, which is the sky. Believing it to be strength and glory let it be worshipped. He who knoweth it so, becomes glorious and mighty.

6. These five venerable beings are the door-keepers of heaven. Heroes are born in his family who knoweth these five venerable beings to be the door-keepers of heaven; he obtaineth heaven [for his reward] who knows these five venerable beings to be the door-keepers of heaven.

7. That which shines glorious above yonder heaven, above this world and above all others large or small, is the same as that which shines within mankind. It is tangible [to all].

8. For its warmth is felt in this body by touch. It is audible, for when the ears are closed, it is heard like the roar of a flaming fire, or that of a rolling car, or a bellowing ox. That tangible and audible glory is to be adored. He who knoweth-verily he who knoweth-this, becomes renowned and of handsome appearance.

Section XIV.

1. All this verily is Brahma, for therefrom doth it proceed, therein doth it merge, and thereby is it maintained. With a quiet and controlled mind should it be adored. Man is a creature of reflection, whatever he reflects upon in this life, he becomes the same hereafter; therefore should he reflect [upon Brahma.]

2. [Saying] "that which is nothing but mind, whose body is its life, whose figure is a mere glory, whose will is truth, whose soul is like space [ākāśa,] which performeth all things and willeth all things, to which belong all sweet odours and all grateful juices, which envelopes the whole of this [world], which neither speaketh nor respects anybody,

3. "Is the soul within me; it is lighter than a corn, or barley, or mustard, or a canary seed, or the substance within it. Such a soul is within me, as is greater than this earth, and greater than the sky, and greater than the heaven, and greater than all these regions [put together.]

4. "That which performeth all things, and willeth all things, to which belong all sweet odours and all grateful juices, which envelopes the whole of this [world], which neither speaketh nor respecteth anybody, is the soul within me ; it is Brahma; I shall obtain it after my transition from this world." He who believeth this, and hath no hesitation, will verily obtain the fruit of his reflection; so said Śāndilya-[the sage] Śāndilya.

Section XV.

1. Of that sheathe [the Soul] the sky is the ventricle and the earth is the root; it never decayeth; the quarters of the universe are its corners, and the heaven is its upper aperture; it is the receptacle of wealth, and upon it is the universe supported.

2. Its eastern quarter is called Juhū, its southern quarter Sahamānā, its western quarter Rājñī, and its northern quarter Subhutā; the winds of those quarters are their offspring. He who [wishing for long life for his children] knows the winds to be the offspring of the quarters, hath never to weep for his children. "I know the winds to be the offspring of the quarters, therefore have I had never to weep for my children.

3. "Together with such and such and such, I take asylum of that undying sheathe ; with such and such and such I seek shelter of life [Prāṇa] ; with such and such and such I seek shelter of this earth [Bhuh]  with such and such and such I seek shelter of the sky [Bhuvah]  with such and such and such I seek shelter of heaven [Sva].

4. By [the words] ‘I seek shelter of Prāṇa, [life], I have said that I take asylum of the universal existence.

5. “By what I have said by [the words] ,I seek shelter of Bhuh,’  I mean that I take shelter of the earth, I take shelter of the sky, I take shelter of heaven.

6. "By what I have said by [the words] 'I take shelter of Bhuvah,’ I mean I seek shelter of Agni [fire], I seek shelter of Vāyu [wind], I seek shelter of Āditya [the sun.]

7. "By what I have said by [the words] ' I take shelter of Sva’ I mean-I mean, I take shelter of the Rig Veda, I take shelter of the Yajur Veda, I take shelter of the Sāma Veda."

Section XVI.

1. Verily man is Yajna [sacrifice]. The [first] twenty-four years of his life constitute the morning ritual [Prātah-savana]. The Gāyatri includes 24 letters, and it is the Gāyatri through which the morning ritual is performed. The Vasus are the presiding deities of dawn, and in man the vital airs verily represent the Vasus, for they preserve [vāsayanti] all.

2. At this age should any disease afflict him, he should say, "O vital Vasus, this is the season of my morning ritual, connect it with the mid-day sacrifice, that I, who am sacrifice [itself], may not be lost to the vital Vasus. "Thus he escapes from disease, and verily becomes exempt from affliction.

3. [The] next, [period] to the forty-fourth year of his life constitutes the mid- day ritual. The Tristupa includes forty-four letters, and it is through the Tristupa that the mid-day sacrifice is performed. The Rudras are its presiding deities. In man the vital airs are the Rudras, for they cause weeping, [Rodayanti.]

4. At this age should any disease afflict him, he should say, "O vital Rudras, this is the season of my mid-day ritual, connect it with the afternoon sacrifices, that I, who am sacrifice [itself], may not be lost to the vital Rudras.” Thus he escapes from disease and becomes exempt from affliction.

5. [The] next [period] to the eighty-fourth year of his life constitutes the afternoon ritual. The Jagati [metre] includes eighty-four letters, and it is through the Jagati that the afternoon ceremony is performed. The Ādityas are its presiding deities. In man the vital airs are the Ādityas, for they receive [ādadati] all things.

6. At this age should he be afflicted by any disease, he should say, "O vital Ādityas, this is the season of my afternoon ritual, connect it with the full term of my life, that I, who am sacrifice [itself,] may not be lost to the vital Ādityas." Thus he escapes from disease and becomes exempt from affliction.

7. Verily knowing this Mahidāsa, son of Itarā, said, "O! Why dost thou afflict me, for I shall not be destroyed by thee." He lived for one hundred and sixteen years. Verily he will live for one hundred and sixteen years who knoweth this.

Section XVII.

1. His [of the individual typical of sacrifice] hunger, thirst, and want of pleasure constitute the pain which attends the performance of ceremonies.

2. Whatever he eateth, whatever he drinketh, and whatever he enjoyeth, become unto him [like the reward which is available on the day of the] Upashad.

3. Whatever he laugheth, whatever he eateth, and whatever he enjoyeth, become to him like unto [the] praises [of the Rig and the Yajur Veda.]

4. His penance, charity, sincerity, unenviousness and truthfulness constitute his reward [Dakshiṇā].

5. Therefore is it said, [both at the birth of a child and at the expression of the juice of the moon plant, in reply to the query] “Has she given birth?"
"Yes, she has.” His [of the being typical of ceremony] avabhritha [death] is the termination, so is the termination of the sacrifice called avabhritha.

6. Ghora, son of Angira, having explained this [subject] to Krishna, son of Devakī, said; "He [who knoweth this] should, at the time of his death, repeat these three [Yajur Vedic mantras]: "O! thou art undecaying! Thou art unchanging! Thou art the true essence of life!" Hearing this he lost all desire for other knowledge. About it there are these two Rig Vedic stanzas:

7. "Sages, behold the glory of the first cause [as enveloping all like the day, and shedding radiance from the heaven above."] "Having beheld that exquisite light, high above all darkness, and having beheld it also in our own hearts, we attain to that god of gods and noblest of all lights the sun - the noblest of all lights."

Section XVIII.

1. The mind should be adored as Brahma; this is intellectual [worship]. Next as relating to gods; the sky should be adored as Brahma. These are the two-intellectual and theological-forms of worship that have been ordained [by sages.]

2. That [Brahma] hath four feet. Speech is one of its feet, life is one of its feet, vision is one of its feet, and audition is one of its feet. Thus much for the intellectual; next the theological: fire [Agni] is one of its feet, wind [Vāyu] is one of its feet, sun [Āditya] is one of its feet, the quarters [Disah] are one of its feet. Thus the two-intellectual and theological-forms of worship have been ordained.

3. Speech is verily one of the four feet of Brahma, It radiates light and heat through the effulgence of Agni. Heat and light radiate from his works, from his fame and from his Vedic glory, who knoweth it thus.

4. Breath is verily one of the four feet of Brahma. It radiates light and heat through the effulgence of Vāyu. Heat and light radiate- from his works, from his fame and from his Vedic glory, who knoweth it thus.

5. Vision is verily one of the four feet of Brahma. It radiates light and heat through the effulgence of Āditya. Heat and light radiate from his works, from his fame and from his Vedic glory, who knoweth it thus.

6. Audition is verily one of the four feet of Brahma. It radiates heat and light through the effulgence of the quarters of the earth (Dig.) Heat and light radiate from his works, from his fame and from his Vedic glory, who knoweth it thus.

Section XIX.

1. The sun is described as Brahma; -its description. Verily at first all this was non-existent; that non-existence became existent; it developed,-it became an egg: it remained [quiet] for a period of one year; it burst into two; thence were formed two halves of gold and silver.

2. Thereof the argentine half is the earth, and the golden half the heaven. The inner thick membrane [of the egg] became mountains, and the thin one cloudy fog; the blood-vessels became rivers, and the fluid became the ocean; and, lastly, what was born therefrom is the sun, Āditya.

3. On its birth arose loud shouts [or shouts of ulu-ulu] as well as all living beings and their desires. Hence on the rising and re-rising [day after day] of the sun arise shouts of ulu-ulu as well as all living beings and their desires.

4. He [attaineth the glory of the sun] who, knowing this, adores the sun as Brahma, and grateful shouts soon arise in his behalf and contribute to his gratification,-verily they contribute to his gratification.


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