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CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD | Chapter 4

CHĀNDOGYA UPANISHAD.

FOURTH CHAPTER.

Section I.

1. Om! Of a truth there lived Janaśruti grandson of the son of Janaśruti, the charitably disposed, the giver of large gifts, and the preparer of much food. He built houses everywhere that [people] from all sides might come and feast [therein].

2. [Over his house] at night passed some geese, the hindermost of which addressing the foremost, said: "Lo! Lo! Bhallāksha, Bhallāksha, [short-sighted] the glory of Janaśruti grandson of the son of Janaśruti, is as wide-spreading as the heaven. Have nothing to do with him, so that his glory may not destroy thee."

3. To it said the other: "Who is he whom you compare with Rakvya of the car?" "And who is this Rakvya of the car," enquired the first.

4. [The latter replied] "I allude to such a being to whom the fruits of all the good deeds of mankind become subservient in the same way in which all the minor numbers become due to him who hath secured the Krita or the highest cast of the dice, and those who know what he knows likewise secure [the same reward]."

5. Janaśruti great-grandson of Janaśruti listened to this. [In the morning] rising [from his bed while being eulogized by his bards] he thus, addressed his herald: "O child, do you address me as if I were the Rakvya of the car? [I am not deserving of such praise.] O child, do you of a truth go and speak unto Rakvya of the car [that I long to see him]."
[Of him enquired the bard:] "and who is this Rakvya of the car?"

6. [The latter replied] " I allude to such a being to whom the fruits of all the good deeds of mankind become subservient in the same way in which all the minor numbers become due to him who hath secured the Krita or the highest cast of the dice, and those who know what he knows likewise secure [the same reward]."

7. The bard searched for him, and, returning, said, "I have found him not." Unto him, said [Janaśruti], "Do ye go and look for him where the knowers of Brahma are to be met with."

8. He proceeded, and, by one sitting beside a car and scratching his itches, sat down and said, "Art thou, O lord, Rakvya of the car?" "Yes, I am," said the other. "Now I know," [thought the bard] and retired.

Section II.

1. Upon this Janaśruti the great-grandson of Janaśruti, taking with him six hundred head of cattle, a necklace and a pair of mules, yoked to a chariot, repaired to him, and thus addressed, "O Rakvya, here [is a present] of six hundred head of cattle, a necklace, and a pair of mules yoked to a chariot [accept them, and deign], O Lord, to impart to me instruction on that deity whom thou adorest."

2. Unto him said the other, " Let these head of cattle and necklace and chariot remain with thee, O Sudra." Hereupon, Janaśruti, great-grandson of Janaśruti, taking a thousand head of cattle, a necklace, a pair of mules yoked to a chariot and his daughter, again returned to him,

3. And said, " 0 Rakvya, this [herd of a] thousand cows, this necklace, this pair of mules yoked to a chariot, this damsel and this village in which thou dwellest [I beg to offer to thee: accept them and deign] to impart to me instruction."

4. Knowing her, [the damsel,] to be the cause of his imparting instruction, he [Rakvya] said; "Hast thou brought her [for me], O Sudra? She will be the cause of my conversing with thee." Hence are these villages in this country of great virtue [mahābrisha] where he lived, called Rakvyapurna. Unto him explained he, [the nature of the deity he adored].

Section III.

1. The air [Vāyu] is verily the ultimatum [sambarga] of all. When a fire goes out, of a truth it merges into air [Vāyu.] When the sun doth disappear it verily mergeth into air, so doth the moon when it setteth.

2. When waters dry they vanish in air j the air verily consumeth all. Thus much relating to celestial objects.

3. Next as relating to self. Life is verily the ultimatum of all. When man sleepeth, speech mergeth into life, so doth vision merge into life, audition merge into life, and mind merge into life.-Life verily consumeth all.

4. These are verily the two ultimate [sambarga;] Vāyu among the celestial objects and life among the animal functions.

5. [Once] while Saunaka of the race of Kapi, and Abhipratārin son of Kaksha-sena, were being served at their meals, a Brahmachārin sought alms of them. Unto him they gave nothing.

6. He said, "He [the Prajāpati] who swalloweth the venerable four, and is the protector of the earth, "O descendant of Kapi, is not seen by mortals. O Abhipratārin, he exists in various forms. For him is food prepared, and him have you denied."

7. Saunaka descendant of Kapi reflected within himself and returned [for answer]: "Life is the author of the gods and of the creation. His teeth are immutable; he is a great consumer; he is not unintelligent; his greatness is said to be extreme; none can consume him, and he consumeth all food. We, O Brahmachārin, adore such a Brahma. "[Then turning to his servant, said] "Give him some alms."

8. [The servant] gave him [some]. These five and five [the two ultimate] make ten and they are a krita, [complete number.]

Therefore the aliment in all the different quarters being ten is a krita. It [the complete number] is Virāt, the consumer of food.
Through it, all this becomes visible. Unto him who knoweth verily unto him who knoweth-this, all this [world] becomes visible, and he becomes a [great] consumer of food.

Section IV.

1. Satyakāma Jabālā, enquired of his mother Jabālā; "I long to abide [by a tutor] as a Brahmachārin; of what gotra am I?"

2. She said unto him, "I know not, child, of what gotra you are. During my youth when I got thee I was engaged in attending on many [guests who frequented the house of my husband and had no opportunity of making any enquiry on the subject,] I know not of what gotra you are, Jabālā is my name and Satyakāma thine; say, therefore, of thyself, Satyakāma son of Jabālā [when anybody enquireth of thee]."

3. He repaired to Haridrumata of the Gautama gotra and said, "I approach your venerable self to abide by your worship as a Brahmachārin."

4.  Of him enquired he [the tutor;] "Of what gotra are you, my good boy?
"He replied; " I know not of what gotra I am. I enquired about it of my mother and she said, ‘In my youth when I got thee I was engaged in attending on many, and know not of what gotra you are; Jabālā is my name and Satyakāma thine:’ ‘I am that Satyakāma son of Jabālā.’"
5. Unto him said the other, "None but a Brahman can say so. You have not departed from the truth, and I shall invest you [with the brāhmanic rites.] Do you collect, child, the necessary sacrificial wood?" Having ordained him, he selected four hundred head of lean and weakly cows and said, "Do you, child, attend to these." While leading the cows, he [the neophyte] said, "I shall not return until these become a thousand." Thus he passed many years, until the cattle had multiplied to a thousand.

Section V.

1. A Bull said unto him, " O Satyakāma!" He replied,
"Sir." the Bull said, "We have now come to a thousand; do you take us back to your tutor.

2. "I will relate to you, something regarding Brahma."
"Relate it to me, Sir, [if you please.]" It said unto him:
"the eastern quarter is a portion, the western quarter is a portion, the southern quarter is a portion, the northern quarter is a portion; these are the four portions, of a fourth foot of Brahma. It is called Prakāsavān. [renowned.]

3. "He becomes renowned in this world, who knowing thus adoreth the four membered foot of Brahma as the renowned. He overcomes all renowned regions, who knowing thus adoreth the four membered foot of Brahma as the renowned.

Section VI.

1. "Agni will explain to you [the nature of] the next foot of Brahma.
"On the morrow he [the cowherd] turned towards his tutor with the cattle. When night arrived he lighted a fire, folded the cattle, placed fuel on the fire, and sat behind it facing the east.

2.  Unto him said Agni," O Satyakāma" "Lord:” responded the other.

3. "Child, I will explain to you a foot of Brahma." "Explain it, Sir, if you please."
Unto him said the other, "the earth is a part, the sky is a part, the heaven is a part, the ocean is a part; -these four parts, O child, constitute the foot of Brahma called the endless, [Anantavān.]

4. "He becomes endless even in this world, who knowing this adores the four membered foot of Brahma as the endless; he conquers the regions of the immortals, who knowing this adores the four-membered foot of Brahma as the endless.

Section VII.

1. "The sun will explain to you the nature of the next foot of Brahma." On the morrow he started again towards the house of his tutor, and when night approached he lighted a fire, folded the cattle, placed fuel on the fire and sat behind it, facing the east.

2. The sun approaching him said,"O Satyakāma!" "Lord," responded the other.

3. "I will relate to thee a foot of Brahma;" said he. "Relate, O Lord," said the second. [Unto him, said the first,] the fire [Agni] is a part, the sun [Surya] is a part, the moon [Chandra] is a part, the lightning is a part;-these four parts, O child, constitute the foot of Brahma called the radiant.

4. "He becomes radiant in this world, who knowing this adores the four membered foot of Brahma as the radiant,-he overcomes the region of the radiant, who knowing this adores the four membered foot of Brahma as the radiant.

Section VIII.

1. "The Madgu [wind] will explain to you the nature of the next foot of Brahma.” On the morrow he started again towards the house of his tutor, and when night approached, he lighted a fire, folded the cattle, placed fuel on
the fire, and sat behind it, facing the east.

2. The wind approaching him said, "O Satyakāma!"
"Lord," responded the other.

3. "I will explain to thee, O child, a foot of Brahma," said the first. "Relate, O lord," returned he. Unto him said the first: "Life is a part, the eyes are a part, the ears are a part, the mind is a part;-these four parts constitute the foot of Brahma called the Spacious [Āyatanavān].

4. "He becomes the receptacle of many, in this world, who, knowing this, adores the four-membered foot of Brahma as the Spacious; he attains to the region of the Spacious who, knowing this, adores the four-membered foot of Brahma as the Spacious."

Section IX.

1. He reached the house of his tutor. Unto him said the tutor: "O Satyakāma." "Lord," responded he.

2."Child! you speak as if you knew Brahma; who has given thee instruction?"
"Other than man," said he, and added: "Instruct me as I wish to hear of it from you.”

3. "I have heard from sages like unto yourself that knowledge got from tutors is most excellent." Accordingly he related everything [as narrated above] omitting nothing,-verily omitting nothing.

Section X.

1. Of a truth Upakosala, son of Kamala, (Kāmalāyana) abided by Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, as a Brahmachārin, and for twelve years carefully attended his household fires. The tutor granted leave to his other pupils to return home, but refused that indulgence to him.

2. To the tutor said his wife: "This exhausted Brahmachārin has successfully attended the household fires; let not the fires upbraid thee; explain to him [what he wants.]" He [the tutor], without [condescending to grant the] explanation, went out on his pilgrimage.

3. The disciple fell ill and abstained from food. Unto him said the wife of the tutor: "Brahmachārin, take food; why abstain from sustenance?"
He replied: " Many and variously disposed are my desires; I am full of diseases and shall take no food."

4. Next, verily, the fires said: "This exhausted Brahmachārin has carefully attended us, we will explain unto him [what he wants]," and then continued :

5. "Life [prāṇa] is Brahma, Ka is Brahma and Kha is Brahma." He replied: "I know the Prāṇa to be Brahma, but know not Ka nor Kha." They said : "Verily, that which is Ka is Kha, and that which is Kha is Ka." They spoke, of a truth, of life and the sky.

Section XI.

1. Next, Gārhapatya (the household fire) instructed him, [saying]:
"Earth, fire, aliment and the sun [constitute my body]. Thereof the being who is seen in the sun, is I,-verily I am he.

2. "He destroyeth sin who, knowing this, adoreth him; he attaineth the region [of Agni], enjoyeth the full limit of existence, passeth his life in glory, and his race wasteth not. We support him in this and other regions who, knowing this, adoreth him [the household fire."]

Section XII.

1. Next, Annāhāryyapachana [fire] instructed him, [saying] : "Water, the quarters of the globe, the stars and the moon [constitute my body]. Thereof the being who is seen in the moon is I,-verily I am he.

2. "He destroyeth sin, who knowing this adoreth him he attaineth the region [of that fire], enjoyeth the full limit of existence, passeth his life in glory, and his race wasteth not. We support him in this and other regions who, knowing this, adoreth him [the Annāhāryyapachana fire.]"

Section XIII.

1. Next Āhavaṇiya [fire] instructed him [saying] : "The life, the sky, the heaven and lightning [constitute my body]. Thereof the being who is seen in lightning is I,-verily I am he.

2. " He destroyeth sin who, knowing this, adoreth him; he attaineth the region [of that Agni], enjoyeth the full limit of existence, passeth his life in glory, and his race wasteth not. We support him in this and other regions who, knowing this, adoreth him [the Āhavaṇiya fire.”]

Section XIV.

1. They [the different fires together] said : "Child Upakosala, [we have now explained] to you the knowledge relating to ourselves and to the soul. Your tutor will explain to you the fruit of that knowledge."[At this time] the tutor returned [from his pilgrimage] and addressed his pupil, [saying]: "O Upakosala!”

2. " Sir," returned he. "Child, your appearance shines like that of the knowers of Brahma: who has given thee instruction?"
"He replied: [as if to make a secret] "Who will instruct me, Sir?" And then pointing to the fires said [of them]:
"These verily that are thus, were otherwise." "Did they, child, speak unto you?" inquired the tutor.

3. "Even so,"responded the pupil. [The tutor said]: "Child, they have spoken to you about regions, I too will speak to you about them; as water attacheth not unto the leaf of the lotus, so doth sin attach not unto him who understands them." "Relate it then unto me, Sir," said [the pupil] unto him.

Section XV.

1. "That being who is seen within the eyes, is verily the soul," said [the tutor.] "He is deathless and fearless; he is Brahma; should any ghee or water drop on him, that passeth away.

2. "He is called Sanyadvāma; all adorable objects [vāma] merge into him; all adorable objects merge into him who knoweth this.

3. "Oh! he is verily the great Receptacle, for all adorable objects merge into him; all adorable objects merge into him who knoweth this.

4. "It is verily Refulgent [Bhāmani], for it shines everywhere. He becomes refulgent everywhere who knoweth this.

5. "Now, whether any funeral service be performed with reference to him [the knower of the Refulgent] or not, still after death he obtaineth the regents of the sun-beams [Archi] ; thence he passeth to the regents of day, [Aha,] thence to the regents of the light fortnight, thence to those of the six months during which the sun moves to the north of the equator, thence to those of the year, thence to the sun, thence to the moon, and thence to the regents of lightning; whence an unearthly being

6. "Takes such knowers to [the region of] Brahma. This is the way to gods [Deva patha];-this the way to Brahma [Brahma patha.] Those who betake to this path return not - verily return not-to this mortal sphere."

Section XVI.

1. Verily that which bloweth, is sacrifice [Yajna,] for blowing it purifieth all this. Because blowing it purifieth, hence is it Yajna, of which mind and speech are the two paths.

2. Of the two paths the first is purified by Brahmā through his mind. The second is purified by the Hotā, the Adharyyu and the Udgāthā through speech. In such cases where a Brahmā, after commencing the morning ritual, but before the recitation of the closing verses of the Rig, speaketh,

3. The last of the two paths may be purified, but the former is defiled, and the sacrifice goes wrong as the man of one leg or a one-wheeled car goeth astray. On the failure of the sacrifice, the institutor faileth, and by the performance of that ceremony becomes sinful.

4. Next, where, after the commencement of the morning ritual, but before the recitation of the closing Rig verses, the Brahma speaketh not, [the performers of the ceremony] purify both the paths, and none is defiled;

5. And as a man walking on two legs or a car mounted on two wheels standeth firm, so doth such sacrifice stand firm; in the confirmation of the sacrifice, the institutor standeth firm, and the performers of the ceremony become great.

Section XVII.

1. Prajāpati reflected on regions, and from the reflected extracted their essences, viz. Fire from the earth, Air from the sky, and the Sun from heaven.

2. He reflected on the three gods, Fire, Air and the Sun, and from the reflected extracted their essences, viz., the Rig from Agni, the Yajus from Vāyu [air,] and the Sāma from the Sun.

3. He reflected on the three-fold knowledge and from the reflected extracted its essences, viz. [the word] Bhu from the Rig, [the word] Bhuvah from the Yajus and [the word] Sva from the Sāma.

4. [In the performance of a ceremony] should any Rig hymn happen to be misused [the performer of that sacrifice] should offer an oblation to the gārhapatya [household] fire, [saying]:
"May this prove acceptable to Bhu!" [Bhuh Shvahā.] [The Rig in that case] by its essence and majesty corrects all the improprieties of the Yajna, as far as they relate to the Rig hymns.

5. Now should any Yajus hymn happen to be misused, [he] should offer an oblation to the Dakshiṇā [Southern] fire, [saying]: "May this prove acceptable to Bhuvah!" [Bhuvah Shvahā] [The Yajus in that case] by its essence and majesty corrects all the improprieties of the Yajna, as far as they relate to the Yajur hymns.

6.  Now, should any Sāma hymn happen to be misused, he should offer an oblation to the Āhavanīya fire [saying]: "May this prove acceptable to Sva." [Sva Shvahā.] [The Sāma in case] by its essence and majesty corrects all the improprieties of the Yajna, as far they relate to the Sāma hymns.

7. As gold is corrected by borax, and silver by gold, and tin by silver, and lead by tin, and iron by lead, and wood by iron or leather,

8. So doth the majesty of these regions, these gods and of these three systems of knowledge, correct the improprieties of the sacrifice. That sacrifice becomes efficacious of which the Brahmā is conscient of all this.

9. That sacrifice slopeth to the north of which the Brahmā knoweth all this. With reference to the Brahmā who knoweth all this there is this verse [extant]:
"Whenever any law happeneth in a ceremony [this knowledge of the Brahmā] setteth everything to right."

10. Such a willing Brahmā is verily the chief priest. Like as warriors are defended by their mares, so doth such a knowing Brahma preserve the sacrifice, its institutor, and all the officiating priests. Therefore, of a truth, such knowing Brahmas should perform ceremonies and not those who know not-not those who know not [their duty].


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