Vedic Upanishads

The Sāma Veda includes among its treasures the Chhāṇdogya Brāhmaṇa, consisting of ten parts; of these, the last eight constitute the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad. In turn, the eight parts of the Upanishad may be broadly divided into two sections. The first, consisting of five parts, deals with upāsanā, or ritualistic worship with emphasis on meditation. The second section, of three parts,

The Taittirīya Upanishad has been so named because it forms a part of the Taittirīya Āraṇyaka of the Krishna Yajur Veda. The special feature of the Taittirīya Upanishad is in the grand proclamation that Brahman is Ānandamaya or Supreme Bliss. Wherever there is the bliss or joy, it is a reflection of the light of Brahman. The Vedāntic doctrine of

Praśna Upanishad has derived its name from the Six Questions it contains and it belongs to the Atharva Veda. There are six chapters in the Praśna Upanishad and each begins with a question. The first question refers to the origin of the created beings, the second to the constituents of the human personality, the third to the nature and origin

Aitareya Upanishad is contained in the Ṛig Veda and forms a part of the Aitareya Āraṇyaka. The Aitareya Upanishad is a short prose text, divided into three chapters, containing 33 verses. It comprises the fourth, fifth and sixth chapters of the second book of the older Vedic text, Aitareya Āraṇyaka. It is one of the oldest and so called Classical

Muṇḍaka literally means a razor, or one with shaven head, i.e., a Sannyāsin. The Upanishad is so called probably for two reasons; first, because it cleanses the soul by destroying all its super-imposed ignorance, even as a razor shaves the head; secondly, because it strongly advocates the Sannyāsa life in preference to the house-holder’s. It belongs to the group of

Īśa Upanishad derives its title from the opening words “Īśa- Vāsya, “God-covered.” The use of Īśa (Lord)—a more personal name of the Supreme Being than Brahman, Ātman or Self, the names usually found in the Upanishads - constitutes one of its peculiarities. It forms the closing chapter of the Yajur-Veda, known as Śuklā (White). The Īśa-Vāsya Upanishad is that which

The Māṇḍūkya Upanishad is so named, probably after its seer Rishi Mundaka. It belongs to the Atharva Veda group of Upanishads. In a short compass of only 12 mantrams, Māṇḍūkya Upanishad speaks of the entire range of human consciousness, beginning from the awakened state and ending in the Supreme Absolute state of super-consciousness where all objective relations and perceptions of

This Upanishad is called Kena Upanishad , because it begins with the inquiry: “By whom” (Kena) willed or directed does the mind go towards its object? From whom comes life? What enables man to speak, to hear and see? And the teacher in reply gives him the definition of Brahman, the Source and Basis of existence. The spirit of the

Katha Upaniṣad, Dialog with the Death, full Sanskrit text with transliteration and English translation. Katha Upanishad represents an ancient conversation between an ancient sage Nachikētas and Yama, the lord of kingdom of Death.

TAITTIRĪYA UPANISHAD. Siksha Valli FIRST ANUVĀKA. May Mittra grant us welfare, - Varuṇa grant us welfare, - Aryamas grant us welfare,-Indra (and) Brihaspati grant us welfare,-the far-stepping Vishṇu grant us welfare.-Salutation to Brahma,-Salutation to thee, O Vāju. -Thou art even visibly Brahma.-I will call thee even the visible Brahma,-I will call (thee) just,-I will call (thee) true.-May he (Brahma) preserve