Sāṁkhya Karika with Gauḍapāda Commentaries | Part 4


Ekādashendriyavadhā, saha buddhivadhair aśaktir upadishṭā |
saptadaśadhā buddhir, viparyayās tushṭisiddhīnām  |49|

49. Defects in the eleven organs together with aberrations of the intellect have been termed disability. Intellectual aberrations are seventeen, by inversion of contentment and perfection.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The distinctions of disability are next specified.

It has already been declared that of disability through organic defects there are twenty-eight varieties [verse 47]. These comprise destructive injuries to the eleven sense- organs, [as,] deafness, blindness, paralysis, loss of taste and of smell, dumbness, mutilation, lameness, constipation, impotence and insanity.

Together with injuries to the intellect, there are twenty-eight sub-divisions of disability; [thus] there are seventeen defects of the intellect.

There are seventeen defects from the inversion of contentment and perfection. There are nine varieties of the former and eight of the latter. The opposites of these together with the eleven defects [in senses] make up the twenty-eight forms of disability.

Ādhyātmikāsh catasraḥ, prakṛtyupādānakālabhāgākhyāḥ |
bāhyā viṣayoparamāc, ca pañca nava tushṭayo abhimatāḥ  |50|

50. Nine sorts of contentment are enumerated: four internal, named from nature, means, time and luck; and five external, relating to abstinence from objects of sense.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The variations arising from the opposites of contentment and perfection are to be noticed, therefore the nine-fold contentment is next specified.

Four sorts of contentment are internal; internal being such as are in the individual (or spirit).

They are named from nature, means, time and luck. Named from Nature: as, when a person knows the world-stuff, knows it with the constituents as well as without, and, conceiving a principle [of existence] to be its product, rests contented; for him there is no liberation; this is Nature-contentment. Named from means: as, when a person, ignorant of the [twenty-five] principles, adopts external means, [relying upon] the triple staff, the water-pot and general curiosity for salvation; for him too there is no liberation; this is means-contentment. Named from time: ‘salvation will follow in course of time, what is the use of studying principles?’ this is time-contentment, and in this case too there is no liberation. Similarly, named from luck: salvation will be attained by good luck; this is luck-contentment. These are the four sorts of [internal] contentment.

And the external are five, resulting from abstinence from sense-objects. The external forms of contentment are five, which result when a man, observing [the evils attendant upon] acquisition, preservation, destruction, attachment and harmfulness, abstains from [the pleasures of] sound, touch, form, flavour and smell. With a view to increase, one has to take to rearing of cattle, trade, acceptance of gifts, and service; acquisition in this way is painful. There is pain, [again], in the preservation of what has been acquired; waste also is painful, and enjoyment leads to waste. Where there is attachment to sensual pleasures there is no repose for the organs; this is the fault of such attachment. Again, there is no enjoyment without injury to created things; this is the evil of harmfulness. Thus, an observation of the evils of acquisition and the rest leads to abstention from the five objects (of sense), whence the five kinds of contentment result.

Hence taking the internal and the external varieties together, there are nine forms of acquiescence, the names of which are [differently] given in other works, thus, water (ambhas), wave (salilam), flood (ogha), rain (vrishti), great darkness (sutamas), crossing (pāram), happy crossing (sunetram), feminine (nārīkam), unsurpassed water (anutamāmbhasikam). From the contraries of these forms, which constitute varieties of disability, arise defects in intellect, viz., anambha, asalilam, anogha, etc. Thus from the opposites follow intellectual aberrations.

Ūhaḥ śabdo adhyayanaṃ, duḥkhavighātās trayaṃ suhritprāptiḥ |
dānaṃ ca siddhayogo, siddhi pūrvo ankushas trividhaḥ  |51|

51. The eight [means to] perfection are reasoning, hearing, study, suppression of threefold pain, intercourse with friends, and purity. The three foregoing [dispositions] are checks to perfection.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 Perfection is next described.

Reasoning: as one continually meditates, what is truth? What is the future? What is ultimate felicity? What should I do in order to attain the end (of my existence)? From such reflections the knowledge arises that Nature is one and Soul another, and intellect, self-apperception, the subtle rudiments, the sense-organs and the five gross elements are all distinct. In this way a knowledge of principles is reached, which leads to salvation. This is the first kind of perfection, named reasoning.

Again, from oral instruction comes a knowledge of Nature, Soul, intellect, self-apperception, the rudimentary principles, the sense-organs and the five gross elements; from which knowledge liberation follows. This is the perfection styled hearing.

From study, study of the Vedas and other sacred works, a knowledge of the twenty-five principles is obtained; this is the third kind of perfection.

The three-fold suppression of pain: when, with a view to the removal of the three kinds of pain, intrinsic, extrinsic and superhuman, one approaches a teacher and following his advice, attains to salvation; this is the fourth kind of perfection. This, conceived as three-fold on account of the three sorts of pain, makes up six varieties of perfection.

Next, intercourse with friends: as, when obtaining knowledge from a friend [one] attains to liberation; this is the seventh kind of perfection.

Liberality: as, when one by offering abode, medicine, staff, water-pot, food and clothes to holy men, obtains knowledge from them and is thereby emancipated; this is the eighth kind of perfection.

These eight forms have different names in other works, as tāram, sutāram, tāratāram, pramodam, pramuditam, pramodamānam, ramyakam, and sadāpramuditam. The opposites of these are defects of intellect and are classified as disabilities, viz., atāram, asutāram, etc. The varieties of disability have been spoken of as twenty-eight, eleven organic defects together with the intellectual aberrations [verse 49]. Now, the contraries of contentment are nine, those of perfection eight, thus there are seventeen defects of intellect; these together with those of the organs make up the twenty-eight varieties of disability already referred to.

Thus obstruction, disability, contentment and perfection have been particularised and determined.

What else? The foregoing are three kinds of checks to perfection; [that is], obstruction, disability, and contentment are from their severalty threefold curbs upon [the attainment of] perfection. As an elephant is brought under control by an iron hook, so the world sinks into ignorance through obstruction, disability and contentment. Therefore we should abandon these and apply ourselves to [the acquiring of] perfection.

Perfection gives rise to a knowledge of principles, which leads to liberation.

Na vinā bhāvair liṅgaṃ, na vinā lingena bhāvenavinivṛttiḥ |
lingākhyo bhāvākhyas, (tasmād dvividhaḥ pravartate sargaḥ)  |52|

52. If there were no conditions there would be no subtle person, [and] if there was no subtle person there would be no evolution of the conditions. Thence a two-fold creation proceeds, by name personal and objective.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 In the statement, “the rudiment invested with dispositions" [verse 40], the dispositions are the affections of intellect, virtue and the rest, as modified by obstruction, disability, contentment and perfection. These form the intellectual creation, [also] called dispositional. The liṅga is described as a rudimental creation, extending throughout the fourteen sorts of created things [verse 53]. It is now explained whether Soul’s purpose is fulfilled by either (then by which) or by both of the creations.

Without dispositions, the intellectual creation, there would be no subtle person, rudimental creation; because the investiture with successive frames is due to the necessary influence of ever-preceding conditions.

Nor without a subtle person, the rudimental creation, would there be any evolution of the dispositions, because the origination of virtue and the rest is effected by bodies subtle and gross, and because creation is eternal.  This mutual dependence, like that of the seed and the sprout, is no defect, for the reciprocity is one between species and not between individuals.

Wherefore a double creation proceeds, one named dispositional, the other personal.

Aṣṭavikalpo devas, tiryagyonish ca pañcadhā bhavati |
mānushakash catvekavidhaḥ, samāsato bhautikaḥ sargaḥ  |53|

53. The divine race is of eight sorts, the non-human of five, and man is alone in his class. Such briefly is the world of created beings.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What else?

Divine, of eight kinds, [viz.] Brahmā, Prājāpatya, Saumya, Aindra, Gaṅdharva, Yakṣa, Rākṣasa and Piśācha.

Animals wild and domestic, birds, reptiles and immovable substances form the five kinds of horizontal- movers.

The human kind is one. These are the fourteen sorts of creatures.

Ūrdhvaṃ sattvavishās, tamovishālash ca mūlataḥ sargaḥ |
madhye rajovishālo, brahmādiḥ stambaparyantaṃ  |54|

54. The creation extends from Brahmā and the rest to a stock.  Above goodness prevails, below the creation is full of darkness; passion predominates in the middle.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The three constitutive powers are to be found in all the three worlds; it is next stated which predominates in each.

Above, in the eight celestial spheres, prevalence of goodness, extensiveness or predominance of goodness; [that is], goodness is triumphant, passion and darkness exist, [however]. Full of darkness below, in animals and immovable substances the whole creation is pervaded by an excess of darkness, [though] there also goodness and passion are not [wholly] absent.

In the middle, in man, passion predominates; here, too, goodness and darkness are present, therefore man is often in pain.

Thus from Brahma' to a stock, Brahmā at one extremity and immovable things at the other, [creation extends].

In this way creations non-elemental—[comprising] rudimental and dispositional,—and elemental (of beings of celestial, human and brutal origin) constitute the sixteen sorts which proceed [mediately] from Nature.

Tatra jarāmaraṇakṛtaṃ, duḥkham prāpnoti cetanaḥ puruṣaḥ |
liṅgasyā  vinivrittes, tasmād duḥkhaṃ svabhāvena  |55|

55. In them the sentient Soul experiences pain, owing to decay and death, till the subtle person returns; hence pain is of the essence [of bodily existence].

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 In them, in beings of divine, human and brutal origin, the sentient, intelligent, soul experiences pain due to decay and death,—not Nature, or consciousness, or self-apperception, or the elemental rudiments, or the sense-organs or the gross elements.

How long does the soul suffer pain? This is discussed. Till the ‘rudiment’ ceases to be, as long as it entering into the subtle person, composed of intellect and the rest, remains manifest there, [that is], as long as the migratory body does not cease to revolve, so long, in short, the soul suffers pain, arising from disease and death, in the three worlds. Till the cessation of the ‘rudiment,' till its release. With the discontinuance of the subtle body comes liberation, with liberation emancipation from pain.

How then can liberation be effected? When a knowledge of the twenty-five principles, which has for its well- known characteristic the differentiation of Soul from Nature, has been attained. This is Nature, this is intellect, this is egoism, these are the five subtle principles, the eleven sense-organs, the five gross elements, and that is soul, which is distinct and dissimilar; from a discriminating knowledge like this results the cessation of the subtle person, and thence salvation.

Ityeṣa prakṛtikṛtau, mahadādiviṣayabhūtaparyantaḥ |
pratipuruṣavimokshārthaṃ, svārtha iva parārtham ārambhaḥ  |56|

56. This evolution of Nature from intellect to the special elements is for the deliverance of each [individual] Soul; the activity, as if for itself, is for the benefit of another.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The purpose of the evolution of Nature is next explained.

Ityeṣa (thus, this) is used at the conclusion and for definition. In Nature, [that is], in its instrumentality or activity, the evolution, extending from intellect to the elements, from Nature intellect, from intellect egoism, thence the rudiments and the eleven organs, and from the rudiments the five gross elements,—thus for the liberation of each individual soul, whether in god, man or animal, is the development (of Nature).

How [is this]? The activity, as if for self, is for another's sake, as, one forsaking his own purpose accomplishes that of his friend, so [also] Nature; Soul in this case doing nothing for Nature. As if for self: not for itself, but for another's purpose. Purpose: the apprehension of sound and other objects [of sense], and discrimination between the constituents and Soul. In the three worlds, the function of Nature is to bring Soul into connection with sound and other sense-objects, and [thereby] ultimately to secure [for it] liberation. So it has been said, “Nature, like a jar, ceases after accomplishing the object of Soul."

Vatsavivriddhinimittaṃ, kshīrasya yathā pravṛttir ajñasya |
puruṣavimokshanimittaṃ, tathā pravṛttiḥ pradhānasya  |57|

57. As the secretion of the unintelligent milk is for the purpose of the nourishment of the calf, so the activity of Nature is for the purpose of the liberation of Soul.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

Here [an opponent] objects, 'Nature is irrational, Soul is rational; then how can the former act rationally, [reflecting] that she must supply the- latter with sound and other objects of sense and ultimately effect his salvation?' True, but action and cessation therefrom are both observed in irrational objects whence it is said, [As the secretion etc.]

As the grass and water taken by a cow are converted into milk in order that the calf may be nourished, and cease, when it has become [sufficiently] strong, so Nature [acts spontaneously] for the liberation of Soul.. Such is the activity of unintelligent beings.

Autsukyanivrittyarthaṃ, yathā kriyāsu pravartate lokaḥ |
puruṣavimokshārthaṃ, pravartate tadvad avyaktam  |58|

58. As people engage in works for the purpose of relieving desires, so does the Unmanifested principle for the purpose of liberating Soul.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What else?

As men here being excited by desire engage in works, actions of various kinds, for its gratification, and desist when satisfied, so the Prime Cause desists, after accomplishing the two objects necessary for Soul’s deliverance, viz., [ first ], apprehension or experience of sound and other sense-objects, and [ second ], appreciation of the difference between Soul and the constituents.

Rangasya darṣayitvā, nivartate nartakī yathā nṛtyāt |
puruṣasya tathātmānam, prakāṣya vinivartate prakṛtiḥ  |59|

59. As a dancer, having exhibited herself on the stage, desists from the dance, so does Nature cease, when she has manifested herself to Soul.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 And what else?

As a dancer, having acted her part by representing on the stage plays, founded on history and tradition, and giving expression to love and other passions, and accompanied by songs, music and dances, desists from her dance, so too does Nature desist, after she has exhibited herself to Soul in the various forms of intellect, egoism the rudiments, the organs, and the gross elements.

Nānāvidhair upāyair, upakāriṇy anupakāriṇaḥ puṃsaḥ |
guṇavaty aguṇasya satas, tasyārtham apārthakaṃ carati  |60|

60. Nature, generous and endowed with the ‘qualities,’ accomplishes by manifold means, and without benefit [to herself], the purpose of Soul, [which is] thankless and uncomposed of the constituents.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 It is next explained why and for what cause is such cessation.

By manifold means. Nature is the benefactress of soul, ungrateful Soul. How? In the characters of gods, men, and animals, by conditions involving pain, pleasure and insensibility, and by the properties of sound and other sense-objects. Having in this way by manifold means exhibited herself to Soul [and made it manifest] that ‘I am one, thou art another,’ [Nature] desists.

Thus she accomplishes the object of the eternal Soul, without benefit [to herself]. As a benevolent person works for the good of every body and seeks no return for himself, so Nature effects the object of Soul without [thereby securing] any advantage [for herself].

Prakṛteḥ sukumārataraṃ, na kiṃcid astīti me matir bhavati |
yā dṛṣṭāsmīti punar, na darśanam upaiti puruṣasya  |61|

61. My opinion is that nothing exists more bashful than Nature, who knowing that ‘I have been seen’ does not appear again before Soul.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 It was said before that “having exhibited herself Nature ceases” [verse 60]; it is now explained what she does on desisting.

There is nothing in the world more modest than Nature, this is my opinion; since her mind thus consults another's advantage. Wherefore Nature [saying] ‘I have been seen by that Soul,' does not again expose herself to his gaze, disappears from his presence, in fact. This explains “modest.”

Some assign God as the [universal] cause: “The ignorant brute, having no control over its own pleasure or pain, goes to Heaven or Hell, as directed by God.” Others speak of spontaneity as the cause: “Who made the swan white, the peacock many-hued? They are by nature so.” On this point the Sānkhya teachers say, “How can a creation, characterised by the presence of the [three] constituents, proceed from God, in whom they are absent? How again from Soul, which is also not made of the constitutives? These [considerations] render [the causality] of Nature probable. As from white threads, white cloth is made, from black - black, so from Nature, compounded of the three factors, the three worlds, similarly constituted, proceed; this is the inference. God is not made of the constituents, the origination therefrom of worlds so constituted is therefore a [logical] inconsistency. This applies [also] to Soul. Some, again, [make] Time the [first] cause, [for] it has been said, “Time matures the elements, time destroys the world, time watches when [all] things sleep; indeed Time it is difficult to overcome.” There are [but] three categories, the Manifested, the Unmanifested, and Soul; time is included in one of the.se. It is a manifested principle, and has for its origin Nature, since that is the universal cause; spontaneity also merges thereinto; wherefore neither time nor spontaneity is the cause, but Nature alone, [and] of Nature there is no other cause.

She does not appear before soul again. Therefore my opinion is that there is no cause more gentle, more plastic than Nature, like God and the rest. This is apparent from the verse.

Tasmān na badhyate addhā, na mucyate nāpi saṁsarati kaścit |
saṃsarati badhyate mucyate ca nānāśrayā prakṛtiḥ  |62|

62. Wherefore not any [Soul] is bound, or is liberated, or migrates; it is Nature, which, in connection with various beings, is bound, is released, and migrates.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 On being pressed that the Soul is liberated, that it migrates, [the author] says:

The reason why the soul is neither bound, nor liberated, nor does it migrate is because Nature alone with various receptacles, [that is], in connection with divine, human and animal forms, and in the character of intellect, egoism, the rudiments, the organs, and the elements, is bound, liberated, and migrates. Soul is by its very nature unbound and ubiquitous; why [then] should it migrate? [For] migration is for the purpose of attaining what has not been [previously] obtained. ‘The soul is bound,’ ’the soul is liberated ‘the soul migrates’ are mistaken descriptions due to connection with mundane existence.  The true nature of Soul is revealed when a knowledge of its otherness from Nature is attained; on such revelation it is seen to be single, uncontaminated, free from bonds, and resting firmly in its own nature. Now, if there is no bondage for soul, nor is there any liberation. Hence it is said, “Nature alone binds and liberates herself” [verse 63], for where the subtle body, composed of the rudiments’ and possessing' a triple constitution,, exists, it is bound by three-fold bonds; as is said, “ He, who is bound by natural, modified or personal bondage, can be released by no other means.’’ This subtle body is affected by virtue and vice.

Rūpaiḥ saptabhir eva tu badhnāty ātmānam ātmanā prakṛtiḥ |
saiva ca puruṣasyārthaṃ prati, vimocayaty ekarūpeṇa  |63|

63. By seven modes does Nature bind herself by herself, and by one mode does she free herself for the benefit of Soul.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

How is the Prime Cause bound and liberated, and how does it migrate are [next] explained.

By Seven modes: the [following] are said to be the seven, virtue, dispassion, power, vice, ignorance, passion and weakness; these are the seven forms of Nature by means of which she binds herself; by herself, of her own accord. The same Primal Agent, [recognising the performance of] Soul's object to be obligatory, by the one mode of knowledge, liberates herself.

Evaṃ tattvābhyāsān, nāsmi na me nāham ity aparishesham |
aviparyayād viśuddhaṃ, kevalam utpadyate jñānam.  |64|

64. So by a study of the principles is the final, incontrovertible and only one knowledge attained that I am not, naught is mine, and the ego exists not.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 HOW does that knowledge originate?

So, in the order specified, by a study of the twenty- five principles, a knowledge of Soul, [that is, discriminative knowledge ] that this is Nature, that Soul, and' these are the rudiments, sense-organs, and elements, is attained. I am not, [that is,] I do not exist; nor is mine, [scilicet] my body, because I am one and the body another; nor is there an ego.

[Thus], complete, incontrovertible, [that is], - pure of (or free from) doubt; single, unique, there, being no other [true knowledge]; liberation-causing [knowledge] is produced or made manifest. Knowledge is of the twenty-five principles and is possessed by Soul.

Tena nivrittaprasavām, arthavaśāt saptarūpavinivrittāḥ |
prakṛtim paśyati puruṣaḥ, prekṣakavad avasthitaḥ svasthaḥ  |65|

65. With this [knowledge] Soul, unmoved and self-collected, as a spectator, con-templates Nature, who has ceased from production [and] consequently reverted from the seven forms [to her original state].

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What does Soul after having acquired knowledge?

With this pure and unique knowledge Soul beholds Nature like a spectator, unmoved and calm; just as seated in a theatre a spectator beholds an actress, composed, collected in self [and] abiding in his own place.

Nature of what description? Who has ceased from production, desisted from evolution [in the forms] of intellect, egoism, and the rest. Consequently reverted from the seven forms: sees Nature who, owing to the accomplishment of both the objects of Soul, has reverted from the seven forms, [viz.] virtue and the rest, by means of which she binds herself.

Dṛṣṭā mayety upekṣata, eko dṛṣṭāham ity uparatānyā |
sati saṃyoge api tayoḥ, prayojanaṃ ṇāsti sargasya  |66|

66. The one disregards because ‘I have seen;’ the other desists because ‘I have been seen;’ [and] notwithstanding their conjunction there is no occasion for [further] evolution.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What else?

One, [viz.,] Soul, which is single and pure, [is] regardless, like a spectator at a play. ‘I have been seen by him,’ knowing this [Nature] ceases to act. Nature is the one, the principal cause of even the three worlds, there is no second; since destruction of the [one] form will lead to specific differences. Thus though Nature and Soul have desisted, yet through their pervasiveness there is conjunction; but from [this mere] con-junction proceeds no creation.

There being conjunction of the two: juxtaposition of Nature and Soul, on account of their universal diffusion, there is no motive for creation or production, because of fruition [of objects]. The necessity for Nature is two-fold: perception of sound and other sense-objects, and appreciation of difference between Soul and the constitutive powers; both having been accomplished, there is no occasion for evolution, for further production. As after a settlement of accounts between a debtor and a creditor due to acceptance of payment, their coming together does not [again] bring about any pecuniary relation;  so there is no further occasion [for creation] in the case of Nature and Soul.

Samyagjñānādhigamād, dharmādīnām akāraṇaprāptau
tiṣṭhati saṃskāravaśāc, cakrabhramivad dhritaśarīraḥ  |67|

67. The attainment of adequate knowledge renders virtue and the rest inoperative; [Soul, however,] like a wheel revolving from the effect of [previously-received] impulse, remains [for a while] invested with a frame.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 'If upon attainment of knowledge a soul’s liberation follows, why does not mine [at once] take place?’ The answer is [now given].

Though a knowledge of the twenty-five principles has been attained, yet from the effect of previous impulse, the holy man, clothed with flesh, stays. How? Like the Whirling  of a wheel, similar to it; as a potter, having set his wheel whirling, places a lump of clay upon it and makes a pot and thereafter takes it off, leaving the wheel to revolve, from the force of previous impulse.

In this way from the attainment of perfect knowledge, upon one possessing such knowledge, virtue and the rest cease to operate as causes. The seven forms of fetters are consumed by adequate knowledge; as seeds scorched by fire are incapable of germinating, so these, virtue, etc., are incompetent to bind [Soul].

Virtue and the rest having become defunct as causes, body continues through the force of previous impulse. Why does not the destruction of present virtue and vice follow from knowledge? Because [they are] present; [but] they shall perish in a moment. Knowledge, moreover, destroys future acts as also what is done in the present body by observing established rites. With the cessation of the impulse and [consequent] destruction of the body, liberation takes place.

Prāpte śarīrabhede, caritārthatvāt pradhānavinivrittau |
aikāṅtikam ātyantikam, ubhayaṃ kaivalyam āpnoti  |68|

68. When owing to gratification of ends, [its ] separation from the body takes place and Nature ceases to act, [ Soul ] obtains both absolute and final isolation.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What is liberation is next specified.

On the destruction of the effects of virtue and vice, and Nature having ceased, absolute, certain, and final, unimpeded, isolation, emancipation through abstraction; [that is], Soul obtains liberation, which is both absolute and final.

Puruṣārthaṃjñānam idaṃ, guhyam paramarshiṇā samākhyātam |
sthityutpattipralayāc, cintyate yatra bhūtānām  |69|

69. This abstruse knowledge, which is for the benefit of Soul, and in which the origin, production and dissolution of beings are considered, has been thoroughly expounded by the great sage.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 Soul’s purpose is liberation; for that object this knowledge, abstruse, mysterious, has been thoroughly expounded by the great Sage, the saintly Kapila. Wherein, in which knowledge, the origin, production and dissolution, [that is], existence, appearance and disappearance, of beings, of the modes [of Nature], are considered or discussed. From an investigation of which - adequate knowledge, which consists in a cognition of the twenty-five principles, springs.

‘Upon the Sānkhya doctrines expounded by the sage Kapila for securing release from migration, and of which these are the seventy verses, this is the gloss composed by Gauḍapāda.

Etat pavitram agryam, munir āsuraye anukampayā pradadau |
āsurir api pañcaśikhāya tena bahulīkṛtaṃ tantram  |70|

70. This, the first of purifying doctrines, the sage imparted to Āsuri out of compassion; and Āsuri [taught it] to Pañcaśikhā, by whom it was extensively made known.

Śiṣyaparamparayāgatam, īśvarakrishṇena caitad āryābhiḥ |
saṃkṣiptam āryamatinā, samyag vijñāya siddhāntam  |71|

71. Received from a succession of disciples, it was compendiously composed in Ārya metre by the pious-minded Iśvara Kṛṣṇa, who had adequately learnt the demonstrated truth.

Saptatyāṃ khalu ye arthās te arthāḥ kṛtsnasya ṣaṣṭitantrasya |
ākhyāyikāvirahitāḥ, paravādavivarjitāḥ ca api  |72|

72. The subjects dealt with in seventy- stanzas comprise the whole [science] consisting of sixty topics, excluding anecdotes as well as controversial matters.