Brahma Sutras Chapter 3. 1

Brahma Sutras 3.1

Tadantarapratipattyadhikaranam: Topic 1 (Sutras 1-7)

The soul at the time of transmigration does take with it subtle parts of the elements


Tadantarapratipattau ramhati samparishvaktah prasnanirupanabhya   |III.1.1 (292)

In order to obtain another body (the soul) goes enveloped (by subtle elements) (as appears from) the question and explanation (in the scripture, Chhandogya).

Tadantarapratipattau - for the purpose of obtaining a fresh body
(Tat - that, i.e. a body; Antara - different, another; Prati-pattau - in obtaining);
Ramhati - goes, departs,
Samparishvaktah - enveloped (by subtle elements);
Prasna - from question;
Nirupanabhyam - aid for explanations.


Tryatmakatvattu bhuyastvat  |III.1.2 (293)

On account of water consisting of three (elements) (the soul is enveloped by all these elements and not merely water); but (water alone is mentioned in the text) on account of its preponderance (in the human body).

Tryatmakatvattu - on account of (water) consisting of three elements;
Tu - but;
Bhuyastvat - on account of the preponderance (of water).


Pranagatescha  |III.1.3 (294)

And because of the going out of the Pranas (the sense organs) with the soul, the elements also accompany the soul.

Prana - of the Pranas (the sense organs);
Gateh - because of the going out;
Cha - and.


Agnyadigatisruteriti chet na bhaktatvat  |III.1.4 (295)

If it be said (that the Pranas or the organs do not follow the soul) on account of the scriptural statements as to entering into Agni, etc., (we say) not so, on account of its being so said in a secondary sense (or metaphorical nature of these statements).

Agnyadi - Agni and others;
Gati - entering; Sruteh:on account of the scriptures;
Iti - as thus;
Chet - if; Na - not so (it cannot be accepted);
Bhaktatvat - on account of its being said in a secondary sense.


Prathame’sravanaditi chet na ta eva hi upapatteh   |III.1.5 (296)

If it be objected on the ground of water not being mentioned in the first of the oblations, we say not so, because that (water) only is verily meant by the word "Sraddha" because that is the most appropriate meaning of the word in that passage.

Prathame - in the first of the five oblations described in the Chhandogya Sruti;
Asravanat - on account of not being mentioned; Iti:thus;
Chet - if; Na - not;
Ta eva - that only, i.e., water;
Hi - because;
Upapatteh - because of fitness.


Asrutatvaditi chet na ishtadikarinam pratiteh   |III.1.6 (297))

If it be said that on account of (the soul) not being stated in the Sruti (the soul does not depart enveloped by water, etc.) (we say) not so, because it is understood (from the scriptures) that the Jivas who perform sacrifices and other good works (alone go to heaven).

Asrutatvat - on account of this not being stated in the Sruti;
Iti - this; Chet - if;
Na - not;
Ishtadikarinam - in reference to those who perform sacrifices;
Pratiteh - on account of being understood.


Bhaktam vanatmavittvat tatha hi darsayati  |III.1.7 (298)

But (the souls’ being the food of the gods in heaven is used) in a secondary or metaphorical sense, on account of their not knowing the Self because the Sruti declares like that.

Bhaktam - Metaphorical;
Va - but, or;
Anatmavittvat - on account of their not knowing the Self;
Tatha - so;
Hi - because;
Darsayati - (Sruti) declares, shows.

Kritatyayadhikaranam - Topic 2 (Sutras 8-11)

The souls descending from heaven have a remnant of Karma which determines their birth


Kritatyaye’nusayavan drishtasmritibhyam yathetamanevam cha  |III.1.8 (299)

On the exhaustion of good work the soul returns to the earth with a remainder of the Karmas, as can be understood from direct statement in Sruti and Smriti, by the same route through which he ascended after death and differently too.

Krita - of what is done, of the Karma;
Atyaye - at the end, at the exhaustion;
Anusayavan - with a remainder of the Karma;
Drishtasmritibhyam - as can be understood from direct statement in Sruti and Smriti;
Yatha itam - by the way he went;
Anevam - differently;
Cha - and.


Charanaditi chet na upalakshanartheti karshnajinih  |III.1.9 (300)

If it be objected that on account of conduct (the assumption of the remnant of Karma, Anusaya is not necessary for rebirth on earth), (we say) not so (because the word ‘conduct’ is used) to signify indirectly (the remainder). So Karshnajini thinks.

Charanat - on account of conduct;
Iti - thus, so; Chet - if; Na - not so;
Upalakshanartha - to signify secondarily, indirectly, meant to imply or connote;
Iti - thus;
Karshnajinih - Karshnajini thinks, holds, says.


Anarthakyamiti chet na tadapekshatvat  |III.1.10 (301)

If it be said (by such interpretation of the word ‘conduct’ - good conduct would become) purposeless, (we say) not so, on account of (Karma) being dependent on that (good conduct).

Anarthakyam - purposeless, useless, irrelevancy;
Iti - thus, as; Chet - if;
Na - not so; Tat - that (conduct);
Apekshatvat - on account of dependence on that.


Sukritadushkrite eveti tu baadarih   |III.1.11 (302)(227)

But conduct (Charana) means merely good and evil works; thus the sage Baadari thinks.

Sukrita - good or righteous deeds;
Dushkrite - (and) bad or unrighteous deeds;
Eva - only, merely;
Iti - thus; Tu - but;

Baadarih - (Sage) Baadari. Anishtadikaryadhikaranam - Topic 3 (Sutras 12-21)

The fate after death of those souls whose deeds do not entitle them to pass up to Chandraloka


Anishtadikarinamapi cha srutam   |III.1.12 (303)

The Sruti declares that the non-performers of sacrifices, etc., also (go to the world of moon).

Anishtadikarinam - of those who do not perform sacrifices etc.;
Api - even; Cha - also;
Srutam - is declared by the Sruti.


Samyamane tvanubhuyetareshamarohavarohau tadgatidarsanat  |III.1.13 (304)

But of others, (i.e., those who have not performed sacrifices, etc.) the ascent is to the abode of Yama and after having experienced (the results of their evil deeds) they come down to the earth; as such a course is declared by the Sruti.

Samyamane - in the abode of Yama;
Tu - but;
Anubhuya - having experienced;
Itaresham - of others (of those who do not perform sacrifices);
Arohavarohau - the ascent and descent;
Tat - of them;
Gati - (about their) courses;
Darsanat - as can be understood from the Sruti.


Smaranti cha  |III.1.14 (305)

The Smritis also declare thus.

Smaranti - the Srutis declare;
Cha - also.


Api cha sapta  |III.1.15 (306)

Moreover there are seven (hells).

Api cha - also, moreover;
Sapta - the seven (hells).


Tatrapi cha tadvyaparat avirodhah   |III.1.16 (307)

And on account of his (Yama’s) control even there (in those hells) is no contradiction.

Tatra - there (in those hells);
Api - also, even;
Cha - and;
Tadvyaparat - on account of his (Yama’s) control;
Avirodhah - no contradiction.


Vidyakarmanoriti tu prakritatvat  |III.1.17 (308)

But (the reference is to the two roads) of knowledge and work, those two being under discussion.

Vidyakarmanoh - of knowledge and work;
Iti - thus; Tu - but, only;
Prakritatvat - on account of these being the subject under discussion.


Na tritiye tathopalabdheh  |III.1.18 (309)

Not in (the case of) a third place, as it is thus declared in the scriptures.

Na - not;
Tritiye - in the third;
Tatha - so thus;
Upalabdheh - it being perceived or seen to be.


Smaryate’pi cha loke  |III.1.19 (310)

And (moreover the) Smritis have recorded also (that) in this world (there had been cases of birth without the course of five oblations).

Smaryate - is stated in Smritis;
Api - also; Cha - and;
Loke - in the world.


Darsanaccha  |III.1.20 (311)

Also on account of observation.

Darsanat - on account of observation;
Cha - also, and.


Tritiyasabdavarodhah samsokajasya   |III.1.21 (312)

The third term (i.e. plant life) includes that which springs from heat and moisture.

Tritiya sabda - the third term;
Avarodhah - inclusion;
Samsokajasya - of that which springs from heat and moisture.

Sabhavyapattyadhikaranam - Topic 4 (Sutra 22)

The soul on its descent from the Chandraloka does not become identified with ether, etc., but attains a similarity of nature


Tatsabhavyapattirupapatteh  |III.1.22 (313)

(The soul when coming down from the sphere of moon) attains similarity of nature with them, (i.e., with ether, air, etc.,) as this only is possible.

Tatsabhavyapattih - attainment of a similarity of nature with them;
Upapatteh - being reasonable.

Natichiradhikaranam - Topic 5 (Sutra 23)

It takes only a short time for the descent of the soul


Natichirena viseshat   |III.1.23 (314)

(The soul passes through the stages of its descent) in a not very long time; on account of the special statement.

Na - not; Atichirena - in a very long time;
Viseshat - because of special statement of Sruti.

Anyadhisthitadhikaranam - Topic 6 (Sutras 24-27)

When the souls enter into plants, etc., they only cling to them and do not themselves become those species


Anyadhishthiteshu purvavadabhilpat  |III.1.24 (315)

(The descending soul enters) into (plants) animated other (souls), as in the previous cases, on account of scriptural declaration.

Anyadhishthiteshu - into what is possessed or occupied by another;
Purvavat - like the previous cases;
Abhilapat - on account of the scriptural statement.


Asuddhamiti chet na sabdat   |III.1.25 (316)

If it be said that (sacrificial work is) unholy, (we say) not so, on account of scriptural authority.

Asuddham - unholy;
Iti - so, thus; Chet - if;
Na - no, not so, (the objection cannot stand);
Sabdat - on account of the word, on account of the scriptural authority.


Retah sigyogo’tha   |III.1.26 (317)

Then (the soul gets) connected with him who performs the act of generation.

Retah - one who ejects the seminal fluid;
Yoga - connection with;
Atha - then afterwards.


Yoneh sariram  |III.1.27 (318)

From the womb a (new) body (springs).

Yoneh - from the womb;
Sariram - the body.