Brahma Sutras Chapter 3. 2


Brahma Sutras 3.2

Sandhyadhikaranam -  Topic 1 (Sutras 1-6)

The soul in the dream state


Sandhye srishtiraha hi  |III.2.1 (319)

In the intermediate stage (between waking and deep sleep) there is (a real) creation; because (the Sruti) says so.

Sandhye - in the intermediate stage (between waking and deep sleep, i.e., in the dream state);
Srishtih - (there is real) creation;
Aha - (Sruti) says so;
Hi - because.


Nirmataram chaike putradayascha  |III.2.2 (320)

And some (the followers of one Sakha, namely, the Kathakas) (state that the Supreme Lord is the) Creator; sons, etc., (being the lovely things which He creates).

Nirmataram - Creator, the shaper, the builder, the maker;
Cha - and, moreover;
Eke - some (followers of the particular Sakhas of the Vedas);
Putradayah - sons, etc.;
Cha - and, also.


Mayamatram tu kartsnyenanabhivyaktasvarupatvat  |III.2.3 (321)

But it (viz., the dream world) is mere illusion on account of its nature not manifesting itself with the totality (of the attributes of reality).

Mayamatram - mere illusion;
Tu - but;
Kartsnyena - entirely, fully;
Anabhivyaktasvarupatvat - on account of its nature being unmanifested.


Suchakascha hi sruterachakshate cha tadvidah  |III.2.4 (322)

But (though the dream world is an illusion), yet it is indicative (of the future), for (so we find) in the Sruti, the dream experts also declare this.

Suchaka - Indicative, suggestive;
Cha - moreover, and;
Hi - because, as for;
Sruteh - from the Sruti;
Achakshate - say, affirm;
Cha - also;
Tadvidah - dream-experts, those who know the secrets of dream.


Parabhidhyanattu tirohitam tato hyasya bandhaviparyayau  |III.2.5 (323)

But by the meditation on the Supreme Lord, that which is hidden (by ignorance, viz., the equality of the Lord and the soul becomes manifest), because from him (the Lord) are its (the soul’s) bondage and freedom.

Parabhidhyanat - by meditation on the Supreme Lord;
Tu - but;
Tirohitam - that which is hidden;
Tatah - from Him(the Lord);
Hi - for;
Asya - his, of the individual soul.
Bandhaviparyayau - bondage and its opposite, i.e., freedom.


Dehayogadva so’pi  |III.2.6 (324)

And that (viz., the concealment of the soul’s rulership) also (results) from its connection with the body.

Dehayogat - from its connection with the body;
Va - and, or;
Sah - that (the concealment of the soul’s rulership);
Api - also.

Tadabhavadhikaranam -  Topic 2 (Sutras 7-8)

The soul in dreamless sleep


Tadabhavo nadishu tat sruteh atmani cha  |III.2.7 (325)

The absence of that (i.e., of dreams, i.e., dreamless sleep) takes place in the nerves (Nadis or psychic currents) and in the self, as it is known from the Sruti or scriptural statement.

Tadabhavah - absence of that (dreaming) i.e., deep sleep;
Nadishu - in the nerves (psychic currents);
Tat sruteh - as it is known from the Srutis;
Atmani - in the self;
Cha - and, also. (Tat - about it.)


Atah prabodho’smat  |III.2.8 (326)

Hence the waking from that (viz., Brahman).

Atah - hence;
Prabodhah - waking;
Asmat - from this (i.e., Brahman).

Karmanusmritisabdavidhyadhikaranam -  Topic 3 (Sutra 9)

The same soul returns from deep sleep


Sa eva tu karmanusmritisabdavidhibhyah  |III.2.9 (327)

But the same (soul returns from Brahman after deep sleep) on account of work, remembrance, scriptural text and precept.

Sah eva - the selfsame soul (which went to sleep);
Tu - but;
Karmanusmritisabdavidhibhyah - on account of Karma or work, memory, scriptural authority and precept; (Sah - he; Eva - only, and no other);
Karma - activity, on account of his finishing the action left unfinished;
Anusmriti - remembrance, on account of memory of identity;
Sabda - from the Sruti;
Vidhibhyah - from the commandments.

Mugdhe’rdhasampattyadhikaranam -  Topic 4 (Sutra 10)

The nature of swoon


Mugdhe’rddhasampattih pariseshat  |III.2.10 (328)

In a swoon (in him who is senseless) there is half union on account of this remaining (as the only alternative left, as the only possible hypothesis).

Mugdhe - in a swoon;
Ardhasampattih - partial attainment of the state of deep sleep or death;
Pariseshat - on account of the remaining, because of excess, as it is a state in addition to all others.

Ubhayalingadhikaranam -  Topic 5 (Sutras 11-21)

The nature of Brahman


Na sthanato’pi parasyobhayalingam sarvatra hi   |III.2.11 (329)

Not on account of (difference of) place also two-fold characteristics can belong to the Highest; for everywhere (scripture teaches It to be without any difference).

Na - not;
Sthanatah - on account of (difference of) place;
Api - even;
Parasya - of the Highest (i.e., Brahman);
Ubhayalingam - two-fold characteristics;
Sarvatra - everywhere;
Hi - because.


Na bhedaditi chenna pratyekamatadvachanat  |III.2.12 (330)

If it be said that it is not so on account of difference (being taught in the scriptures), we reply that it is not so, because with reference to each (such form), the Sruti declares the opposite of that.

Na - not so;
Bhedat - on account of difference (being taught in the scriptures);
Iti - thus, as, so, this;
Chet - if; Na - not so;
Pratyekam - with reference to each;
Atadvachanat - because of the declaration of opposite of that.
(Atad - absence of that; Vachanat - on account of the statement.)


Api chaivameke  |III.2.13 (331)

Moreover some (teach) thus.

Api - also;
Cha - moreover, and;
Evam - thus; Eke - some.


Arupavadeva hi tatpradhanatvat  |III.2.14 (332)

Verily Brahman is only formless on account of that being the main purport (of all texts about Brahman).

Arupavat - without form, formless;
Eva - only, indeed, decidedly;
Hi - verily, certainly, because;
Tatpradhanatvat - on account of that being the main purport of scripture.
(Tat - of that; Pradhanatvat - on account of being the chief thing.)


Prakasavacchavaiyarthyat   |III.2.15 (333)

And as light (assumes forms as it were by its contact with things possessing form, so does Brahman take form in connection with Upadhis or limiting adjuncts), because (texts which ascribe form to Brahman) are not meaningless.

Prakasavat - like the light;
Cha - and, moreover;
Avaiyarthyat - because of not being meaningless.


Aha cha tanmatram  |III.2.16 (334)

And (the Sruti) declares (that Brahman is) that (i.e., intelligence) only.

Aha - (the Sruti) declares;
Cha - and, moreover;
Tanmatram - that (i.e., intelligent) only.


Darsayati chatho api smaryate  |III.2.17 (335)

(The scripture) also shows (this and) it is likewise stated in Smriti.

Darsayati - (the scripture or Sruti) shows;
Cha - and, also; Atho - thus, moreover;
Api - also;
Smaryate - the Smritis declare or state.


Ata eva chopama suryakadivat  |III.2.18 (336)

For this very reason (we have with respect to Brahman) comparisons like the images of the sun and the like.

Ata eva - for this very reason; therefore;
Cha - also, and;
Upama - comparison;
Suryakadivat - like the images of the sun and the like.


Ambuvadagrahanattu na tathatvam  |III.2.19 (337)

But there is no similarity (of the two things compared since) (in the case of Brahman any second thing) is not apprehended or experienced like water.

Ambuvat - like water;
Agrahanat - in the absence of perception, because of non-acceptance, because it cannot be accepted, not being experienced;
Tu - but; Na - not, no;
Tathatvam - that nature, similarity.


Vriddhihrasabhaktvamantarbhavadubhayasamanjasyadevam  |III.2.20 (338)

As (the highest Brahman) is inside (its limiting adjuncts) It participates in their increase and decrease; owing to the appropriateness (thus resulting) of the two (things compared), it is thus, (i.e., the comparison holds good).

Vriddhihrasabhaktvam - participating in the increase and decrease;
Antarbhavat - on account of its being inside;
Ubhaya- samanjasyat - on account of the appropriateness in the two cases;
Evam - thus.
(Vriddhi - increase; Hrasa - decrease; Ubhaya - towards both; Samanjasyat - because of the justness, appropriateness.)


Darsanaccha  |III.2.21 (339)

And on account of the declaration of scripture.

Darsanat - as it is found to be so, because it is seen, on account of scriptural declaration;
Cha - and, also.

Prakritaitavattvadhikaranam -  Topic 6 (Sutras 22-30)

The Neti-neti text explained


Prakrtaitavattvam hi pratishedhati tato braviti cha bhuyah  |III.2.22 (340)

What has been mentioned up to this is denied (by the words "not this, not this" and the Sruti) says something more than that (afterwards).

Prakritaitavattvam - what bas been mentioned up to this;
Hi - because, for;
Pratishedhati - denies;
Tatah - then that, over and above that;
Braviti - declares;
Cha - and;
Bhuyah - something more.
(Prakrita - mentioned first, previously stated; Etavattvam -  this much.)


Tadavyaktamaha hi   |III.2.23 (341)

That (Brahman) is not manifest, for (so the scripture) says.

Tat - that (i.e., Brahman);
Avyaktam - is not manifest;
Aha - (so the scripture) says;
Hi - for, because.


Api cha samradhane pratyakshanumanabhyam   |III.2.24 (342)

And moreover (Brahman is experienced) in devout meditation (as we know) from the Sruti and Smriti.

Api cha - and moreover;
Samradhane - in devout meditation;
Pratyakshanumanabhyam - from the Sruti and the Smriti.


Prakasadivacchavaiseshyam prakasascha karmanyabhyasat  |III.2.25 (343)

And as in the case of (physical) light and the like, there is no difference, so also between Brahman and Its manifestation in activity; on account of the repeated instruction (of the Sruti to that effect).

Prakasadivat - like light and the like;
Cha - also, and;
Avaiseshyam - similarity, non-difference, non-distinction;
Prakasah - Brahman;
Cha - and;
Karmani - in work;
Abhyasat - on account of repeated mention (in the Sruti).


Ato’nantena tatha hi lingam  |III.2.26 (344)

Therefore (the individual soul becomes one) with the Infinite; for thus the (scripture) indicates.

Atah - hence, therefore;
Anantena - with the Infinite;
Tatha - thus;
Hi - because, for;
Lingam - the indication (of the scriptures).


Ubhayavyapadesattvahikundalavat   |III.2.27 (345)

But on account of both (i.e., difference and non-difference) being taught (by the Sruti), (the relation of the highest Brahman to the individual soul has to be viewed) like that of the snake to its coils.

Ubhayavyapadesat - on account of both being taught;
Tu - but;
Ahikundalavat - like that between a serpent and its coils.
(Ubhaya - both; Vyapadesat - on account of the declaration of the scripture; Ahi - serpent; Kundalavat - like the coils.)


Prakasasrayavadva tejastvat  |III.2.28 (346)

Or like (the relation of) light and its substratum, on account of  both being luminous.

Prakasasrayavat - like light and its substratum;
Va - or;
Tejastvat - on account of both being luminous.


Purvavadva   |III.2.29 (347)

Or (the relation between the two, i.e., Jiva and Brahman is) as (given) before.

Purvavat - as before;
Va - or.


Pratishedhaccha  |III.2.30 (348)

And on account of the denial.

Pratishedhat - on account of denial;
Cha - and, moreover.

Paradhikaranam -  Topic 7 (Sutras 31-37)

Brahman is one without a second


Paramatah setunmanasambandhabhedavyapadesebhyah  |III.2.31 (349)

(There is something) Superior to this (Brahman) on account of terms denoting a bank, measure, connection and difference (used with respect to It).

Param - greater;
Atah - for this, than this (Brahman);
Setunmanasambandhabhedavyapadesebhyah - on account of terms denoting a bridge, measure, connection and difference.
(Setu - a bridge; Unmana - dimensions; Sambandha - relation; Bheda - difference; Vyapadesebhyah - from the declarations.)


Samanyattu  |III.2.32 (350)

But (Brahman is called a bank etc.) on account of similarity.

Samanyat - on account of similarity;
Tu - but.


Buddhyarthah padavat  |III.2.33 (351)

(The statement as to Brahman having size) is for the sake of easy comprehension (i.e., Upasana or devout meditation); just like (four) feet.

Buddhyarthah - for the sake of easy comprehension;
Padavat - just like (four) feet.


Sthanaviseshat prakasadivat  |III.2.34 (352)

(The statements concerning connection and difference with respect to Brahman) are due to special places -  as in the case of light and the like.

Sthanaviseshat - on account of special places;
Prakasavat - like light and the like.


Upapattescha  |III.2.35 (353)

And it is reasonable.

Upapatteh - as it becomes reasonable;
Cha - also, and.


Tathanyapratishedhat  |III.2.36 (354)

Similarly on account of the express denial of all other things (there is nothing but Brahman).

Tatha - similarly;
Anyapratishedhat - on account of the express denial of all other things.
(Anya - any other, of the other; Pratishedhat - owing to the denial, or prohibition or negation.)


Anena sarvagatatvamayamasabdadibhyah   |III.2.37 (355)

By this the Omnipresence (of Brahman is established) in accordance with the scriptural statements regarding (Brahman’s) extent.

Anena - by this;
Sarvagatatvam - all-pervadingness;
Ayama - (regarding Brahman’s) extent;
Sabdadibhyah - from scriptural statements.

Phaladhikaranam -  Topic 8 (Sutras 38-41) 

The Lord is the giver of the fruits of actions


Phalamata upapatteh  |III.2.38 (356)

From Him (the Lord) are the fruits of actions, for that is reasonable.

Phalam - the fruit;
Atah - from Him only;
Upapatteh - for that is reasonable.


Srutatvaccha   |III.2.39 (357)

And because the Sruti so teaches.

Srutatvat - because the Sruti so teaches, from the declaration of the Sruti to that effect;
Cha - also, and.


Dharmam Jaiminirata eva  |III.2.40 (358)

Jaimini thinks for the same reasons (viz., scriptural authority and reasoning, on the same ground as stated in Sutras 38 and 39) that religious merit (is what brings about the fruits of actions).

Dharmam - practice of religious duties, religious merits;
Jaiminih - the sage Jaimini;
Ata eva - for the same reasons.


Purvam Baadarayano hetuvyapadesat  |III.2.41 (359)

But Baadarayana thinks the former (i.e., the Lord to be the cause of the fruits of action) on account of His being declared to be the cause (of the actions themselves).

Purvam - the former, i. e., the Lord as the giver of the fruits of actions;
Tu - but; Baadarayanah - Baadarayana, the framer of the Sutras (holds);
Hetuvyapadesat - on account of His being declared the cause (of the actions themselves).