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Śvetāśvatara Upanishad | Part 2

Fourth Chapter

चतुर्थोऽध्यायः .
caturtho'dhyāyaḥ

It is apparent that the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad, unlike most of the major Upanishads, contains a strong theistic strain. Names like Hara (I. 10.), Rudra (III. 2, 4; IV. 12, 21, 22.), Śiva (III. 11; IV. 14.), Bhagavān (III. 11.), Agni, Āditya, Vāyu (IV. 2.), etc., which appear in the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad, are generally used as epithets of the Personal God.

Devotion, or bhakti, moreover, is mentioned as a means of realizing the Supreme Spirit, though the word bhakti actually occurs only once, and that in the very last verse. The word deva is used frequently.

All this, according to Rāmānuja and other theistic interpreters, establishes the Personal God as Ultimate Reality. But Śankarāchārya gives these words a non-dualistic meaning and emphasizes that the goal of this is to prove the sole reality of the non-dual Brahman and the unsubstantiality of the jīva and the phenomenal universe.


Chapter IV , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Chapter V , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Chapter VI , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23


य एकोऽवर्णो बहुधा शक्तियोगाद्
वरणाननेकान् निहितार्थो दधाति .
विचैति चान्ते विश्वमादौ च देवः
स नो बुद्ध्या शुभया संयुनक्तु .. १..

ya eko'varṇo bahudhā śaktiyogād
varaṇānanekān nihitārtho dadhāti .
vicaiti cānte viśvamādau ca devaḥ
sa no buddhyā śubhayā saṁyunaktu .. 1..

He, the One and Undifferentiated,
who by the manifold application of His powers produces,
in the beginning, different objects for a hidden purpose,
and, in the end, withdraws the universe into Himself,
is indeed the self-luminous [Supreme Self],
May He endow us with clear intellect!

तदेवाग्निस्तदादित्य-
स्तद्वायुस्तदु चन्द्रमाः .
तदेव शुक्रं तद् ब्रह्म
तदापस्तत् प्रजापतिः .. २..

tadevāgnistadāditya
stadvāyustadu candramāḥ .
tadeva śukraṁ tad brahma
tadāpastat prajāpatiḥ .. 2..

That [Supreme Self] is Agni (Fire); It is Āditya (Sun);
It is Vāyu (Wind); It is Chandramā (Moon).
That Self is the luminous stars; It is Hiraṇyagarbha; It is water; It is Virāt.

त्वं स्त्री पुमानसि
त्वं कुमार उत वा कुमारी .
त्वं जीर्णो दण्डेन वञ्चसि
त्वं जातो भवसि विश्वतोमुखः .. ३..

tvaṁ strī pumānasi
tvaṁ kumāra uta vā kumārī .
tvaṁ jīrṇo daṇḍena vañcasi
tvaṁ jāto bhavasi viśvatomukhaḥ .. 3..

Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youth and maiden too.
Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff;
it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms.

नीलः पतङ्गो हरितो लोहिताक्ष-
स्तडिद्गर्भ ऋतवः समुद्राः .
अनादिमत् त्वं विभुत्वेन वर्तसे
यतो जातानि भुवनानि विश्वा .. ४..

nīlaḥ pataṅgo harito lohitākṣa
staḍidgarbha ṛtavaḥ samudrāḥ .
anādimat tvaṁ vibhutvena vartase
yato jātāni bhuvanāni viśvā .. 4..

Thou art the dark-blue bee; Thou art the green parrot with red eyes;
Thou art the thunder-cloud, the seasons, and the seas.
Thou art beginningless and all-pervading.
From Thee all the worlds are born.

अजामेकां लोहितशुक्लकृष्णां
बह्वीः प्रजाः सृजमानां सरूपाः .
अजो ह्येको जुषमाणोऽनुशेते
जहात्येनां भुक्तभोगामजोऽन्यः .. ५..

ajāmekāṁ lohitaśuklakṛṣṇāṁ
bahvīḥ prajāḥ sṛjamānāṁ sarūpāḥ .
ajo hyeko juṣamāṇo'nuśete
jahātyenāṁ bhuktabhogāmajo'nyaḥ .. 5..

There is one unborn [prakṛti]— red, white, and black—
which gives birth to many creatures like itself.
An unborn [individual soul] becomes attached to it and enjoys it,
while another unborn [individual soul] leaves it after his enjoyment is completed.

द्वा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया
समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते .
तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं स्वाद्वत्त्यन-
श्नन्नन्यो अभिचाकशीति .. ६..

dvā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā
samānaṁ vṛkṣaṁ pariṣasvajāte .
tayoranyaḥ pippalaṁ svādvattyana
śnannanyo abhicākaśīti .. 6..

Two birds, united always and known by the same name, closely cling to the same tree.
One of them eats the sweet fruit; the other looks on without eating.

समाने वृक्षे पुरुषो निमग्नोऽ-
नीशया शोचति मुह्यमानः .
जुष्टं यदा पश्यत्यन्यमीशमस्य
महिमानमिति वीतशोकः .. ७..

samāne vṛkṣe puruṣo nimagno'
nīśayā śocati muhyamānaḥ .
juṣṭaṁ yadā paśyatyanyamīśamasya
mahimānamiti vītaśokaḥ .. 7..

Seated on the same tree, the jīva moans, bewildered by its impotence.
But when it beholds the other, the Lord worshipped by all, and His glory,
it becomes free from grief.

ऋचो अक्षरे परमे व्योमन्
यस्मिन्देवा अधि विश्वे निषेदुः .
यस्तं न वेद किमृचा करिष्यति
य इत्तद्विदुस्त इमे समासते .. ८..

ṛco akṣare parame vyoman
yasmindevā adhi viśve niṣeduḥ .
yastaṁ na veda kimṛcā kariṣyati
ya ittadvidusta ime samāsate .. 8..

Of what use are the Vedas to him
who does not know that indestruct¬ible Substance,
that ākāśa-like Brahman, which is greater than the unmanifest
and wherein the Vedas and all the gods are sheltered?
Only those who know It attain bliss.

छन्दांसि यज्ञाः क्रतवो व्रतानि
भूतं भव्यं यच्च वेदा वदन्ति .
अस्मान् मायी सृजते विश्वमेत-
त्तस्मिंश्चान्यो मायया सन्निरुद्धः .. ९..

chandāṁsi yajñāḥ kratavo vratāni
bhūtaṁ bhavyaṁ yacca vedā vadanti .
asmān māyī sṛjate viśvameta
ttasmiṁścānyo māyayā sanniruddhaḥ .. 9..

The sacred verses, the offerings (yajña), the sacrifices (kratu),
the penances (vrata), the past, the future, and all that the Vedas declare,
have been produced from the imperishable Brahman.

Brahman projects the universe through the power of Its māyā.
Again, in that universe Brahman [as the jīva] is entangled through māyā.

मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं च महेश्वरम् .
तस्यवयवभूतैस्तु व्याप्तं सर्वमिदं जगत् .. १०..

māyāṁ tu prakṛtiṁ vidyānmāyinaṁ ca maheśvaram .
tasyavayavabhūtaistu vyāptaṁ sarvamidaṁ jagat .. 10..

Know, then, that prakṛti is māyā and that the Great God is the Lord of māyā.
The whole universe is filled with objects which are parts of His being.

यो योनिं योनिमधितिष्ठत्येको
यस्मिन्निद.म् सं च विचैति सर्वम् .
तमीशानं वरदं देवमीड्यं
निचाय्येमां शान्तिमत्यन्तमेति .. ११..

yo yoniṁ yonimadhitiṣṭhatyeko
yasminnida.m saṁ ca vicaiti sarvam .
tamīśānaṁ varadaṁ devamīḍyaṁ
nicāyyemāṁ śāntimatyantameti .. 11..

By truly realizing Him who, though non-dual, dwells in prakṛti,
both in its primary and in its secondary aspect,
and in whom this whole world comes together and dissolves—

by truly realizing Him who is the Lord, the bestower of blessings, the Adorable God,
one attains the supreme peace.

यो देवानां प्रभवश्चोद्भवश्च
विश्वाधिपो रुद्रो महर्षिः .
हिरण्यगर्भं पश्यत जायमानं
स नो बुद्ध्या शुभया संयुनक्तु .. १२..

yo devānāṁ prabhavaścodbhavaśca
viśvādhipo rudro maharṣiḥ .
hiraṇyagarbhaṁ paśyata jāyamānaṁ
sa no buddhyā śubhayā saṁyunaktu .. 12..

He, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers,
the Support of the universe, Rudra the omniscient,
who at the beginning gave birth to Hiraṇyagarbha—
may He endow us with clear intellect!

यो देवानामधिपो
यस्मिन्ल्लोका अधिश्रिताः .
य ईशे अस्य द्विपदश्चतुष्पदः
कस्मै देवाय हविषा विधेम .. १३..

yo devānāmadhipo
yasminllokā adhiśritāḥ .
ya īśe asya dvipadaścatuṣpadaḥ
kasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema .. 13..

He who is the sovereign of the gods, in whom the worlds find their support,
who rules over all two-footed and four-footed beings—
let us serve that God, radiant and blissful, with an oblation.

सूक्ष्मातिसूक्ष्मं कलिलस्य मध्ये
विश्वस्य स्रष्ठारमनेकरूपम् .
विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारं
ज्ञात्वा शिवं शान्तिमत्यन्तमेति .. १४..

sūkṣmātisūkṣmaṁ kalilasya madhye
viśvasya sraṣṭhāramanekarūpam .
viśvasyaikaṁ pariveṣṭitāraṁ
jñātvā śivaṁ śāntimatyantameti .. 14..

By realizing Him who is subtler than the subtlest,
who dwells in the midst of the chaos [of the world],
who is the Creator of all things and is endowed with many forms,
who is the non-dual Pervader of the universe, and all good—
by realizing Him one attains the supreme peace.

स एव काले भुवनस्य गोप्ता
विश्वाधिपः सर्वभूतेषु गूढः .
यस्मिन् युक्ता ब्रह्मर्षयो देवताश्च
तमेवं ज्ञात्वा मृत्युपाशांश्छिनत्ति .. १५..

sa eva kāle bhuvanasya goptā
viśvādhipaḥ sarvabhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ .
yasmin yuktā brahmarṣayo devatāśca
tamevaṁ jñātvā mṛtyupāśāṁśchinatti .. 15..

It is He who, in proper time,
becomes the custodian of the universe and the sovereign of all;
who conceals Himself in all beings [as their inner Witness];
and in whom the sages and the deities are united.

Verily, by knowing Him one cuts asunder the fetters of death.

घृतात् परं मण्डमिवातिसूक्ष्मं
ज्ञात्वा शिवं सर्वभूतेषु गूढम् .
विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारं
ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः .. १६..

ghṛtāt paraṁ maṇḍamivātisūkṣmaṁ
jñātvā śivaṁ sarvabhūteṣu gūḍham .
viśvasyaikaṁ pariveṣṭitāraṁ
jñātvā devaṁ mucyate sarvapāśaiḥ .. 16..

He who knows Brahman, who is all Bliss, extremely subtle,
like the film that rises to the surface of clarified butter, and is hidden in all beings—

he who knows the radiant Deity, the sole Pervader of the universe,
is released from all his fetters.

एष देवो विश्वकर्मा महात्मा
सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः .
हृदा मनीषा मनसाभिक्लृप्तो
य एतद् विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति .. १७..

eṣa devo viśvakarmā mahātmā
sadā janānāṁ hṛdaye sanniviṣṭaḥ .
hṛdā manīṣā manasābhiklṛpto
ya etad viduramṛtāste bhavanti .. 17..

The Maker of all things, self-luminous and all-pervading,
He dwells always in the hearts of men.
He is revealed by the negative teachings [of the Vedanta], discriminative wisdom,
and the Knowledge of Unity- based upon reflection.
They who know Him become immortal.

यदाऽतमस्तान्न दिवा न रात्रिः
न सन्नचासच्छिव एव केवलः .
तदक्षरं तत् सवितुर्वरेण्यं
प्रज्ञा च तस्मात् प्रसृता पुराणी .. १८..

yadā'tamastānna divā na rātriḥ
na sannacāsacchiva eva kevalaḥ .
tadakṣaraṁ tat saviturvareṇyaṁ
prajñā ca tasmāt prasṛtā purāṇī .. 18..

When there is no darkness [of ignorance],
there is no day or night, neither being nor non-being;
the pure Brahman alone exists.

That immutable Reality is the meaning of “That”; It is adored by the Sun.
From It has proceeded the ancient wisdom.

नैनमूर्ध्वं न तिर्यञ्चं
न मध्ये न परिजग्रभत् .
न तस्य प्रतिमा अस्ति
यस्य नाम महद् यशः .. १९..

nainamūrdhvaṁ na tiryañcaṁ
na madhye na parijagrabhat .
na tasya pratimā asti
yasya nāma mahad yaśaḥ .. 19..

No one can grasp Him above, across, or in the middle.
There is no likeness of Him. His name is Great Glory (Mahad Yasah).

न संदृशे तिष्ठति रूपमस्य
न चक्षुषा पश्यति कश्चनैनम् .
हृदा हृदिस्थं मनसा य एन-
मेवं विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति .. २०..

na saṁdṛśe tiṣṭhati rūpamasya
na cakṣuṣā paśyati kaścanainam .
hṛdā hṛdisthaṁ manasā ya ena
mevaṁ viduramṛtāste bhavanti .. 20..

His form is not an object of vision; no one beholds Him with the eyes.

They who, through pure intellect and the Knowledge of Unity based upon reflection, realize Him as abiding in the heart become immortal.

अजात इत्येवं कश्चिद्भीरुः प्रपद्यते .
रुद्र यत्ते दक्षिणं मुखं तेन मां पाहि नित्यम् .. २१..

ajāta ityevaṁ kaścidbhīruḥ prapadyate .
rudra yatte dakṣiṇaṁ mukhaṁ tena māṁ pāhi nityam .. 21..

It is because Thou, O Lord, art birthless,
that some rare souls, frightened [by birth and death], take refuge in Thee.
O Rudra, may Thy benign face protect me forever!

मा नस्तोके तनये मा न आयुषि
मा नो गोषु मा न अश्वेषु रीरिषः .
वीरान् मा नो रुद्र भामितो
वधीर्हविष्मन्तः सदामित् त्वा हवामहे .. २२..

mā nastoke tanaye mā na āyuṣi
mā no goṣu mā na aśveṣu rīriṣaḥ .
vīrān mā no rudra bhāmito
vadhīrhaviṣmantaḥ sadāmit tvā havāmahe .. 22..

O Rudra, do not, in Thy wrath, destroy our children and grandchildren.
Do not destroy our lives; do not destroy our cows or horses;
do not destroy our strong servants.

For we invoke Thee always, with oblations, for our protection.

Here ends the Fourth Chapter of the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.

Fifths Chapter

पञ्चमोऽध्यायः .
pañcamo'dhyāyaḥ

द्वे अक्षरे ब्रह्मपरे त्वनन्ते
विद्याविद्ये निहिते यत्र गूढे .
क्षरं त्वविद्या ह्यमृतं तु विद्या
विद्याविद्ये ईशते यस्तु सोऽन्यः .. १..

dve akṣare brahmapare tvanante
vidyāvidye nihite yatra gūḍhe .
kṣaraṁ tvavidyā hyamṛtaṁ tu vidyā
vidyāvidye īśate yastu so'nyaḥ .. 1..

In the immutable, infinite Supreme Brahman
remain hidden the two: knowledge and ignorance.
Ignorance leads to worldliness, and knowledge, to Immortality.

Brahman, who controls both knowledge and ignorance, is different from both.

यो योनिं योनिमधितिष्ठत्येको
विश्वानि रूपाणि योनीश्च सर्वाः .
ऋषिं प्रसूतं कपिलं यस्तमग्रे
ज्ञानैर्बिभर्ति जायमानं च पश्येत् .. २..

yo yoniṁ yonimadhitiṣṭhatyeko
viśvāni rūpāṇi yonīśca sarvāḥ .
ṛṣiṁ prasūtaṁ kapilaṁ yastamagre
jñānairbibharti jāyamānaṁ ca paśyet .. 2..

He, the non-dual Brahman, who rules over every position
[by dwelling in each as its inner Guide];
who controls all forms and all sources;
who, in the beginning, filled with knowledge the omniscient Hiraṇyagarbha,
His own creation, whom He beheld when He (Hiraṇyagarbha) was produced—

He is other than both knowledge and ignorance.

एकैक जालं बहुधा विकुर्व-
न्नस्मिन् क्षेत्रे संहरत्येष देवः .
भूयः सृष्ट्वा पतयस्तथेशः
सर्वाधिपत्यं कुरुते महात्मा .. ३..

ekaika jālaṁ bahudhā vikurva
nnasmin kṣetre saṁharatyeṣa devaḥ .
bhūyaḥ sṛṣṭvā patayastatheśaḥ
sarvādhipatyaṁ kurute mahātmā .. 3..

[At the time of the creation]
the Lord spreads out individual nets in various ways,
and then [at the time of the cosmic dissolution] withdraws them
into the great prakṛti.
Again the all-pervading Deity creates the aggregates of body and senses,
both individual and collective, and their controllers also,
and thus exercises His over-lordship.

सर्वा दिश ऊर्ध्वमधश्च तिर्यक्
प्रकाशयन् भ्राजते यद्वनड्वान् .
एवं स देवो भगवान् वरेण्यो
योनिस्वभावानधितिष्ठत्येकः .. ४..

sarvā diśa ūrdhvamadhaśca tiryak
prakāśayan bhrājate yadvanaḍvān .
evaṁ sa devo bhagavān vareṇyo
yonisvabhāvānadhitiṣṭhatyekaḥ .. 4..

As the sun shines, illumining all the quarters—above, below, and across—
so also God, self-resplendent, adorable, and non-dual, controls all objects,
which themselves possess the nature of a cause.

यच्च स्वभावं पचति विश्वयोनिः
पाच्यांश्च सर्वान् परिणामयेद् यः .
सर्वमेतद् विश्वमधितिष्ठत्येको
गुणांश्च सर्वान् विनियोजयेद् यः .. ५..

तद् वेदगुह्योपनिषत्सु गूढं
तद् ब्रह्मा वेदते ब्रह्मयोनिम् .
ये पूर्वं देवा ऋषयश्च तद् विदु-
स्ते तन्मया अमृता वै बभूवुः ..६..

yacca svabhāvaṁ pacati viśvayoniḥ
pācyāṁśca sarvān pariṇāmayed yaḥ .
sarvametad viśvamadhitiṣṭhatyeko
guṇāṁśca sarvān viniyojayed yaḥ .. 5..

tad vedaguhyopaniṣatsu gūḍhaṁ
tad brahmā vedate brahmayonim .
ye pūrvaṁ devā ṛṣayaśca tad vidu
ste tanmayā amṛtā vai babhūvuḥ ..6..

He who is the cause of all
and who enables all things to function according to their nature;
who brings to maturity all that can be ripened;
who, being non-dual, rules over the whole universe
and engages the guṇas in their respective functions—

He is concealed in the Upanishads, the secret part of the Vedas.
Brahma knew Him who can be known only from the evidence of the Vedas.
The gods and seers of olden times who knew Him
became Brahman and attained Immortality.

गुणान्वयो यः फलकर्मकर्ता
कृतस्य तस्यैव स चोपभोक्ता .
स विश्वरूपस्त्रिगुणस्त्रिवर्त्मा
प्राणाधिपः सञ्चरति स्वकर्मभिः .. ७..

guṇānvayo yaḥ phalakarmakartā
kṛtasya tasyaiva sa copabhoktā .
sa viśvarūpastriguṇastrivartmā
prāṇādhipaḥ sañcarati svakarmabhiḥ .. 7..

Endowed with guṇas, the jīva performs action, seeking its fruit;
and again, it reaps the fruit of what it has done.

Assuming all forms and led by the three guṇas, the jīva, ruler of the prāṇas,
roams about following the three paths, according to its deeds.

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रो रवितुल्यरूपः
सङ्कल्पाहङ्कारसमन्वितो यः .
बुद्धेर्गुणेनात्मगुणेन चैव
आराग्रमात्रोऽप्यपरोऽपि दृष्टः .. ८..

aṅguṣṭhamātro ravitulyarūpaḥ
saṅkalpāhaṅkārasamanvito yaḥ .
buddherguṇenātmaguṇena caiva
ārāgramātro'pyaparo'pi dṛṣṭaḥ .. 8..

Of the size of a thumb, but brilliant, like the sun,
the jīva possesses both volition and egoism.
It is endowed with the qualities of both buddhi and Ātman.
Therefore it is seen as another entity, inferior, and small as the point of a goad.

बालाग्रशतभागस्य शतधा कल्पितस्य च .
भागो जीवः स विज्ञेयः स चानन्त्याय कल्पते .. ९..

bālāgraśatabhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca .
bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ sa cānantyāya kalpate .. 9..

Know the embodied soul to be a part of the hundredth part
of the point of a hair divided a hundred times;
and yet it is infinite.

नैव स्त्री न पुमानेष न चैवायं नपुंसकः .
यद्यच्छरीरमादत्ते तेने तेने स युज्यते .. १०..

naiva strī na pumāneṣa na caivāyaṁ napuṁsakaḥ .
yadyaccharīramādatte tene tene sa yujyate .. 10..

It is not female, it is not male, nor is it neuter.
Whatever body it takes, with that it becomes united.

सङ्कल्पनस्पर्शनदृष्टिमोहै-
र्ग्रासांबुवृष्ट्यात्मविवृद्धिजन्म .
कर्मानुगान्यनुक्रमेण देही
स्थानेषु रूपाण्यभिसम्प्रपद्यते .. ११..

saṅkalpanasparśanadṛṣṭimohai
rgrāsāṁbuvṛṣṭyātmavivṛddhijanma .
karmānugānyanukrameṇa dehī
sthāneṣu rūpāṇyabhisamprapadyate .. 11..

By means of desires, contact, attachment, and delusion,
the embodied soul assumes, successively, diverse forms in various places,
according to its deeds,
just as the body grows when food and drink are poured into it.

स्थूलानि सूक्ष्माणि बहूनि चैव
रूपाणि देही स्वगुणैर्वृणोति .
क्रियागुणैरात्मगुणैश्च तेषां
संयोगहेतुरपरोऽपि दृष्टः .. १२..

sthūlāni sūkṣmāṇi bahūni caiva
rūpāṇi dehī svaguṇairvṛṇoti .
kriyāguṇairātmaguṇaiśca teṣāṁ
saṁyogaheturaparo'pi dṛṣṭaḥ .. 12..

The embodied soul, by means of good and evil deeds committed by itself,
assumes many forms, coarse and fine.

By virtue of its actions
and also of such characteristics of the mind as knowledge and desire,
it assumes another body for the enjoyment of [suitable] objects.

अनाद्यनन्तं कलिलस्य मध्ये
विश्वस्य स्रष्ठारमनेकरूपम् .
विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारं
ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः .. १३..

anādyanantaṁ kalilasya madhye
viśvasya sraṣṭhāramanekarūpam .
viśvasyaikaṁ pariveṣṭitāraṁ
jñātvā devaṁ mucyate sarvapāśaiḥ .. 13..

He who knows the Lord, who is without beginning or end,
who stands in the midst of the chaos [of the world],
who is the Creator of all things and is endowed with many forms—

he who knows the radiant Deity, the sole Pervader of the universe,
is released from all his fetters.

भावग्राह्यमनीडाख्यं भावाभावकरं शिवम् .
कलासर्गकरं देवं ये विदुस्ते जहुस्तनुम् .. १४..

bhāvagrāhyamanīḍākhyaṁ bhāvābhāvakaraṁ śivam .
kalāsargakaraṁ devaṁ ye viduste jahustanum .. 14..

Those who know Him who can be realized by the pure heart,
who is called incorporeal, who is the cause of creation and destruction,
who is all good and the creator of the [sixteen] parts—

those who know the luminous Lord are freed from embodiment.

Here ends the Fifth Chapter of the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.

Sixths Chapter

षष्ठोऽध्यायः .
ṣaṣṭho'dhyāyaḥ

स्वभावमेके कवयो वदन्ति
कालं तथान्ये परिमुह्यमानाः .
देवस्यैष महिमा तु लोके
येनेदं भ्राम्यते ब्रह्मचक्रम् .. १..

svabhāvameke kavayo vadanti
kālaṁ tathānye parimuhyamānāḥ .
devasyaiṣa mahimā tu loke
yenedaṁ bhrāmyate brahmacakram .. 1..

Some learned men speak of the inherent nature of things,
and some speak of time, [as the cause of the universe].

They all, indeed, are deluded.
It is the greatness of the self-luminous Lord
that causes the Wheel of Brahman to revolve.

येनावृतं नित्यमिदं हि सर्वं ज्ञः
कालकारो गुणी सर्वविद् यः .
तेनेशितं कर्म विवर्तते ह
पृथिव्यप्तेजोनिलखानि चिन्त्यम् .. २..

yenāvṛtaṁ nityamidaṁ hi sarvaṁ jñaḥ
kālakāro guṇī sarvavid yaḥ .
teneśitaṁ karma vivartate ha
pṛthivyaptejonilakhāni cintyam .. 2..

He by whom the whole universe is constantly pervaded
is the Knower, the Author of time. He is sinless and omniscient.
It is at His command that the work
which is called earth, water, fire, air, and ākāśa appears as the universe.

All this should be reflected upon [by the wise].

तत्कर्म कृत्वा विनिवर्त्य भूय-
स्तत्त्वस्य तावेन समेत्य योगम् .
एकेन द्वाभ्यां त्रिभिरष्टभिर्वा
कालेन चैवात्मगुणैश्च सूक्ष्मैः .. ३..

tatkarma kṛtvā vinivartya bhūya
stattvasya tāvena sametya yogam .
ekena dvābhyāṁ tribhiraṣṭabhirvā
kālena caivātmaguṇaiśca sūkṣmaiḥ .. 3..

The yogi who first performs actions and then turns away from them,
and who practises one, two, three, or eight [disciplines],
unites one principle with another principle
and with the help of virtues cultivated by the self
and of subtle tendencies [acquired from actions in previous births]
attains Liberation in course of time.

आरभ्य कर्माणि गुणान्वितानि
भावांश्च सर्वान् विनियोजयेद्यः .
तेषामभावे कृतकर्मनाशः
कर्मक्षये याति स तत्त्वतोऽन्यः .. ४..

ārabhya karmāṇi guṇānvitāni
bhāvāṁśca sarvān viniyojayedyaḥ .
teṣāmabhāve kṛtakarmanāśaḥ
karmakṣaye yāti sa tattvato'nyaḥ .. 4..

He who attains purity of heart
by performing actions as an offering to the Lord,
and merges prakṛti and all its effects in Brahman,
realizes his true Self and thereby transcends phenomena.

In the absence of māyā, both collective and individual,
all his past actions [except the prārabdha] are destroyed
[and he becomes liberated though still dwelling in the body].

After the destruction of the prārabdha karma he attains final Liberation.

आदिः स संयोगनिमित्तहेतुः
परस्त्रिकालादकलोऽपि दृष्टः .
तं विश्वरूपं भवभूतमीड्यं
देवं स्वचित्तस्थमुपास्य पूर्वम् .. ५..

ādiḥ sa saṁyoganimittahetuḥ
parastrikālādakalo'pi dṛṣṭaḥ .
taṁ viśvarūpaṁ bhavabhūtamīḍyaṁ
devaṁ svacittasthamupāsya pūrvam .. 5..

The Great Lord is the beginning, the cause which unites [the soul with the body];
He is above the three kinds of time and is seen to be without parts.

After having worshipped that adorable God dwelling in the heart,
who is of many forms and is the true source of all things,
[man attains final Liberation.]

स वृक्षकालाकृतिभिः परोऽन्यो
यस्मात् प्रपञ्चः परिवर्ततेऽयम् .
धर्मावहं पापनुदं भगेशं
ज्ञात्वात्मस्थममृतं विश्वधाम .. ६..

sa vṛkṣakālākṛtibhiḥ paro'nyo
yasmāt prapañcaḥ parivartate'yam .
dharmāvahaṁ pāpanudaṁ bhageśaṁ
jñātvātmasthamamṛtaṁ viśvadhāma .. 6..

He from whom this universe proceeds
is higher and other than all forms of the Tree [of the World] and of time.
When one knows Him who is the indweller,
the bringer of good, the destroyer of evil,
the Lord of powers, the immortal support of all,
[one attains final Liberation].

तमीश्वराणां परमं महेश्वरं
तं देवतानां परमं च दैवतम् .
पतिं पतीनां परमं परस्ताद्-
विदाम देवं भुवनेशमीड्यम् .. ७..

tamīśvarāṇāṁ paramaṁ maheśvaraṁ
taṁ devatānāṁ paramaṁ ca daivatam .
patiṁ patīnāṁ paramaṁ parastād
vidāma devaṁ bhuvaneśamīḍyam .. 7..

We know Him who is the Supreme Lord of lords,
the Supreme Deity of deities, the Ruler of rulers;
who is higher than the imperishable Prākriti
and is the self-luminous, adorable Lord of the world.

न तस्य कार्यं करणं च विद्यते
न तत्समश्चाभ्यधिकश्च दृश्यते .
परास्य शक्तिर्विविधैव श्रूयते
स्वाभाविकी ज्ञानबलक्रिया च .. ८..

na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate
na tatsamaścābhyadhikaśca dṛśyate .
parāsya śaktirvividhaiva śrūyate
svābhāvikī jñānabalakriyā ca .. 8..

He is without a body or organs; none like unto Him is seen, or better [than He].
The Vedas speak of His exalted power,
which is innate and capable of producing diverse effects,
and also of His omniscience and might.

न तस्य कश्चित् पतिरस्ति लोके
न चेशिता नैव च तस्य लिङ्गम् .
स कारणं करणाधिपाधिपो
न चास्य कश्चिज्जनिता न चाधिपः .. ९..

na tasya kaścit patirasti loke
na ceśitā naiva ca tasya liṅgam .
sa kāraṇaṁ karaṇādhipādhipo
na cāsya kaścijjanitā na cādhipaḥ .. 9..

He has no master in the world, no ruler,
nor is there even a sign of Him [by which He can be inferred].
He is the cause, the Lord of the lord of the organs;
and He is without progenitor or controller.

यस्तन्तुनाभ इव तन्तुभिः प्रधानजैः स्वभावतः .
देव एकः स्वमावृणोति स नो दधातु ब्रह्माप्ययम् .. १०..

yastantunābha iva tantubhiḥ pradhānajaiḥ svabhāvataḥ .
deva ekaḥ svamāvṛṇoti sa no dadhātu brahmāpyayam .. 10..

May the non-dual Lord,
who, by the power of His māyā, covered Himself, like a spider,
with threads drawn from primal matter (pradhāna),
merge us in Brahman!

एको देवः सर्वभूतेषु गूढः
सर्वव्यापी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा.
कर्माध्यक्षः सर्वभूताधिवासः
साक्षी चेता केवलो निर्गुणश्च .. ११..

eko devaḥ sarvabhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ
sarvavyāpī sarvabhūtāntarātmā.
karmādhyakṣaḥ sarvabhūtādhivāsaḥ
sākṣī cetā kevalo nirguṇaśca .. 11..

The non-dual and resplendent Lord is hidden in all beings.
All- pervading, the inmost Self of all creatures,
the impeller to actions, abiding in all things,

He is the Witness, the Animator, and the Absolute, free from guṇas.

एको वशी निष्क्रियाणां बहूना-
मेकं बीजं बहुधा यः करोति .
तमात्मस्थं येऽनुपश्यन्ति धीरा-
स्तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं नेतरेषाम् .. १२..

eko vaśī niṣkriyāṇāṁ bahūnā
mekaṁ bījaṁ bahudhā yaḥ karoti .
tamātmasthaṁ ye'nupaśyanti dhīrā
steṣāṁ sukhaṁ śāśvataṁ netareṣām .. 12..

There is a non-dual Ruler of the actionless many;
He makes the one seed manifold.
Eternal happiness belongs to the wise, who perceive Him within themselves—
and not to others.

नित्यो नित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनाना-
मेको बहूनां यो विदधाति कामान् .
तत्कारणं सांख्ययोगाधिगम्यं
ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः .. १३..

nityo nityānāṁ cetanaścetanānā
meko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān .
tatkāraṇaṁ sāṁkhyayogādhigamyaṁ
jñātvā devaṁ mucyate sarvapāśaiḥ .. 13..

He is the Eternal among the eternal, the Conscious among the conscious,
and though non-dual, fulfils the desires of many.
He who has known Him, the luminous Lord,
the Great Cause, to be realized by Sāṁkhya (Knowledge) and yoga,
is freed from all fetters.

न तत्र सूर्यो भाति न चन्द्रतारकं
नेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतोऽयमग्निः .
तमेव भान्तमनुभाति सर्वं
तस्य भासा सर्वमिदं विभाति .. १४..

na tatra sūryo bhāti na candratārakaṁ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto'yamagniḥ .
tameva bhāntamanubhāti sarvaṁ
tasya bhāsā sarvamidaṁ vibhāti .. 14..

The sun does not shine there,
nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings—much less this fire.
He shining, everything shines after Him. By his light all this is lighted.

एको हंसः भुवनस्यास्य मध्ये
स एवाग्निः सलिले संनिविष्टः .
तमेव विदित्वा अतिमृत्युमेति
नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय .. १५..

eko haṁsaḥ bhuvanasyāsya madhye
sa evāgniḥ salile saṁniviṣṭaḥ .
tameva viditvā atimṛtyumeti
nānyaḥ panthā vidyate'yanāya .. 15..

In this universe the Swan (the Supreme Self) alone exists.
It is He who, as fire, abides in the water.
Only by knowing Him does one pass over death.
There is no other way to reach [the Supreme Goal].

स विश्वकृद् विश्वविदात्मयोनि-
र्ज्ञः कालकालो गुणी सर्वविद् यः .
प्रधानक्षेत्रज्ञपतिर्गुणेशः
संसारमोक्षस्थितिबन्धहेतुः .. १६..

sa viśvakṛd viśvavidātmayoni
rjñaḥ kālakālo guṇī sarvavid yaḥ .
pradhānakṣetrajñapatirguṇeśaḥ
saṁsāramokṣasthitibandhahetuḥ .. 16..

He who is the support of both the unmanifested prakṛti and the jīva,
who is the Lord of the three guṇas,
and who is the cause of bondage, existence, and Liberation from samsāra,
is verily the Creator of the universe, the Knower,
the inmost Self of all things, and their Source –
the omniscient Lord, the Author of time,
the Possessor of virtues, the Knower of everything.

स तन्मयो ह्यमृत ईशसंस्थो
ज्ञः सर्वगो भुवनस्यास्य गोप्ता .
य ईशेऽस्य जगतो नित्यमेव
नान्यो हेतुर्विद्यत ईशनाय .. १७..

sa tanmayo hyamṛta īśasaṁstho
jñaḥ sarvago bhuvanasyāsya goptā .
ya īśe'sya jagato nityameva
nānyo heturvidyata īśanāya .. 17..

He who constantly rules the world
is verily the cause of bondage and Liberation.
Established in His own glory, He is the Immortal,
the Embodiment of Consciousness, the omnipresent Protector of the universe.
There is no one else able to rule it.

यो ब्रह्माणं विदधाति पूर्वं
यो वै वेदांश्च प्रहिणोति तस्मै .
तं ह देवं आत्मबुद्धिप्रकाशं
मुमुक्षुर्वै शरणमहं प्रपद्ये .. १८..

yo brahmāṇaṁ vidadhāti pūrvaṁ
yo vai vedāṁśca prahiṇoti tasmai .
taṁ ha devaṁ ātmabuddhiprakāśaṁ
mumukṣurvai śaraṇamahaṁ prapadye .. 18..

Seeking Liberation, I take refuge in the Lord, the revealer of Self- Knowledge,
who in the beginning created Brahma and delivered the Vedas to Him.

निष्कलं निष्क्रियं शान्तं निरवद्यं निरञ्जनम् .
अमृतस्य परं सेतुं दग्धेन्दनमिवानलम् .. १९..

यदा चर्मवदाकाशं वेष्टयिष्यन्ति मानवाः .
तदा देवमविज्ञाय दुःखस्यान्तो भविष्यति .. २०..

niṣkalaṁ niṣkriyaṁ śāntaṁ niravadyaṁ nirañjanam .
amṛtasya paraṁ setuṁ dagdhendanamivānalam .. 19..

yadā carmavadākāśaṁ veṣṭayiṣyanti mānavāḥ .
tadā devamavijñāya duḥkhasyānto bhaviṣyati .. 20..

When men shall roll up space (ākāśa) as if it were a piece of hide,
then there will be an end of misery
without one’s cultivating the Knowledge of the Lord,
who is without parts, without actions, tranquil, blameless,
unattached, the supreme bridge to Immortality,
and like a fire that has consumed all its fuel.

तपःप्रभावाद् देवप्रसादाच्च
ब्रह्म ह श्वेताश्वतरोऽथ विद्वान् .
अत्याश्रमिभ्यः परमं पवित्रं
प्रोवाच सम्यगृषिसङ्घजुष्टम् .. २१..

tapaḥprabhāvād devaprasādācca
brahma ha śvetāśvataro'tha vidvān .
atyāśramibhyaḥ paramaṁ pavitraṁ
provāca samyagṛṣisaṅghajuṣṭam .. 21..

Through the power of austerity and through the grace of the Lord,
the sage Śvetāśvatara realized Brahman
and proclaimed the highly sacred Knowledge,
supremely cherished by the company of seers,
to sannyasins of the most advanced stage.

वेदान्ते परमं गुह्यं पुराकल्पे प्रचोदितम् .
नाप्रशान्ताय दातव्यं नापुत्रायाशिष्याय वा पुनः .. २२..

vedānte paramaṁ guhyaṁ purākalpe pracoditam .
nāpraśāntāya dātavyaṁ nāputrāyāśiṣyāya vā punaḥ .. 22..

The profound mystery in the Vedanta was taught in the previous cycle.
It should not be given to one whose passions have not been subdued,
nor to one who is not a son or a disciple.

यस्य देवे परा भक्तिः यथा देवे तथा गुरौ .
तस्यैते कथिता ह्यर्थाः प्रकाशन्ते महात्मनः .. २३..
प्रकाशन्ते महात्मन इति .

yasya deve parā bhaktiḥ yathā deve tathā gurau .
tasyaite kathitā hyarthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ .. 23..
prakāśante mahātmana iti .

If these truths have been told to a high-minded person
who feels the highest devotion for God, and for his guru as for God,
then they will surely shine forth [as inner experiences]—

then, indeed, they will shine forth.

Here ends the Sixth Chapter of the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.

Here ends the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.

ॐ सहनाववतु .
सह नौ भुनक्तु .
सह वीर्यं करवावहै .
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु . मा विद्विषावहै ..

auṁ sahanāvavatu  
saha nau bhunaktu .
saha vīryaṁ karavāvahai .
tejasvi nāvadhītamastu  mā vidviṣāvahai ..

Om. May Brahman protect us both!
May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge!
May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge!
May what we both study reveal the Truth!
May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other!

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ..
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ..

Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!