Brahma Sutras Chapter 2. 2


Brahma Sutras 2.2

Rachananupapattyadhikaranam - Topic 1 (Sutras 1-10) 

Refutation of the Sankhyan theory of the Pradhana as the cause of the world


Rachananupapattescha nanumanam  |II.2.1 (172)

That which is inferred, (by the Sankhyas, viz., the Pradhana) cannot be the cause (of the world) because (in that case it is) not possible (to account for the) design or orderly arrangement (found in the creation).

Rachana - construction, the design in creation;
Anupapatteh - on account of the impossibility;
Cha - and; Na - not;
Anumanam - that which is inferred, what is arrived at by inference, i.e., the Pradhana of the Sankhyas.


Pravrittescha  |II.2.2 (173)

And on account of the (impossibility of) activity.

Pravritteh - because of the activity, of a tendency;
Cha - and (it has the force of ‘only’ here).


Payo’mbuvaccet tatra’pi  |II.2.3 (174)

If it be said (that the Pradhana moves or spontaneously modifies herself into the various products) like milk or water (without the guidance of any intelligence), (we reply that) there also (it is due to intelligence).

Payo’mbuvat - like milk and water;
Chet - if;
Tatra - there, in those cases;
Api - even, also.
(Payah -  milk; Ambuvat - like water.)


Vyatirekanavasthiteschanapekshatvat  |II.2.4 (175)

And because (the Pradhana) is not dependent (on anything), there being no external agent besides it (it cannot be active).

Vyatirekanavasthiteh - There being no external agency besides it;
Cha - and also;
Anapekshatvat - because it is not dependent.
(Vyatireka - an external agent;
Anavasthiteh -  from non-existence, as it does not exist.)


Anyatrabhavaccha na trinadivat   |II.2.5 (176)

And (it can) not (be said that the Pradhana modifies itself spontaneously) like grass, etc., (which turn into milk), because of its absence elsewhere (than in the female animals).

Anyatra - elsewhere, in the other case, elsewhere than in cows;
Abhavat - because of the absence;
Cha - and, also; Na - not;
Trinadivat - like the grass etc.


Abhyupagame’pyarthabhavat  |II.2.6 (177)

Even if we admit (the Sankhya position with regard to the spontaneous modification of the Pradhana, it cannot be the cause of the universe) because of the absence of any purpose.

Abhyupagame - accepting, admitting, taking for granted;
Api - even;
Artha - purpose;
Abhavat -  because of the absence.


Purushasmavaditi chet tathapi  |II.2.7 (178)

If it be said (that the Purusha or Soul can direct or move the Pradhana) as the (lame) man can direct a blind man, or as the magnet (moves the iron), even then (the difficulty cannot be overcome).

Purusha - a person.
Asma - a lodestone, a magnet;
Vat - like;
Iti - thus; Chet - if;
Tathapi - even then, still.


Angitvanupapattescha  |II.2.8 (179)

And again (the Pradhana cannot be active) because the relation of principal (and subordinate matter) is impossible (between the three Gunas).

Angitvanupapatteh - on account of the impossibility of the relation of principal (and subordinate);
Cha - and, also.
(Angitva -  the relation of being the principal, being preponderant; Anupa- patteh - on account of the impossibility and unreasonableness).


Anyathanumitau cha jnasaktiviyogat  |II.2.9 (180)

Even if it be inferred otherwise on account of the Pradhana being devoid of the power of intelligence (the other objections to the Pradhana being the cause of the universe remain in force).

Anyatha - otherwise, in other ways;
Anumitau - if it be inferred, in case of inference;
Cha - even, and;
Jnasakti - power of intelligence;
Viyogat -  because of being destitute of, because of dissociation.


Vipratishedhaccasamanjasam  |II.2.10 (181)

And moreover (the Sankhya doctrine) is objectionable on account of its contradictions.

Vipratishedhat - because of contradiction;
Cha - also, and;
Asamanjasam -  inconsistent, objectionable, not harmonious, untenable.

Mahaddirghadhikaranam -  Topic 2 (Sutra 11) 

Refutation of the Vaiseshika view


Mahaddirghavadva hrasvaparimandalabhyam  |II.2.11 (182)

(The world may originate from Brahman) as the great and the long originate from the short and the atomic.

Mahat dirghavat - like the great and the long;
Va - or;
Hrasvaparimandalabhyam -  from the short and the atomic.

Paramanujagadakaranatvadhikaranam -  Topic 3 (Sutras 12-17) 

Refutation of the atomic theory of the Vaiseshikas


Ubhayathapi na karmatastadabhavah  |II.2.12 (183)

In both cases also (in the cases of the Adrishta, the unseen principle inhering either in the atoms or the soul) the activity (of the atoms) is not possible; hence negation of that (viz., creation through the union of the atoms).

Ubhayatha - in either case, in both ways, on both assumptions or hypotheses;
Api - also; Na - not;
Karma - action, activity, motion;
Atah - therefore;
Tadabhavah - absence of that, negation of that, i,e, negation of the creation of the world by union of atoms.


Samavayabhyupagamaccha samyadanavasthiteh  |II.2.13 (184)

And because in consequence of Samavaya being admitted, a regresssus ad infinitum results on similar reasoning (hence the Vaiseshika theory is untenable).

Samavayabhyupagamat - Samavaya being admitted;
Cha - and, also;
Samyat - because of equality of reasoning;
Anavasthiteh -   regressus ad infinitum would result.


Nityameva cha bhavat  |II.2.14 (185)

And on account of the permanent existence (of activity or nonactivity, the atomic theory is not admissible).

Nityam - eternal;
Eva - certainly, even;
Cha - and, also;
Bhavat -  because of the existence, from the possibility.


Rupadimatvacca viparyayo darsanat  |II.2.15 (186)

And on account of the atoms possessing colour, etc., the opposite (of which the Vaiseshikas hold would take place), because it is seen or observed.

Rupadimatvat - because of possessing colour, etc.; Cha - and, also;
Viparyayah - the reverse, the opposite;
Darsanat - because it is seen or observed, from common experience.


Ubhayatha cha doshat  |II.2.16 (187)

And because of defects in both cases (the atomic theory cannot be accepted).

Ubhayatha - in both ways, on either side, in either case;
Cha - also, and;
Doshat -  because of defects (or difficulties).


Aparigrahacchatyantamanapeksha  |II.2.17 (188)

And because (the atomic theory) is not accepted (by authoritative sages like Manu and others) it is to be totally rejected.

Aparigrahat - because it is not accepted;
Cha - and;
Atyantam - altogether, totally, completely;
Anapeksha -  to be rejected.

Samudayadhikaranam -  Topic 4 (Sutras 18-27) 

Refutation of the Bauddha Realists


Samudaya ubhayahetuke’pi tadapraptih  |II.2.18 (189)

Even if the (two kinds of) aggregates proceed from their two causes, there would take place non-establishment (of the two aggregates).

Samudaya - the aggregate;
Ubhayahetuke - having two causes;
Api - also, even;
Tadapraptih -   it will not take place, it cannot be established.


Itaretarapratyayatvaditi chennotpattimatranimittatvat  |II.2.19 (190)

If it be said that (the formation of aggregates may be explained) through (nescience) standing in the relation of mutual causality, we say ‘no’; they merely are the efficient cause of the origin (of the immediately subsequent links and not of the aggregation).

Itara-itara - mutual, one another;
Pratyayatvat - because of being the cause, one being the cause of the other;
Iti - thus; Chet - if; (Iti chet - if it be said);
Na - no;
Utpattimatranimittatvat - because they are merely the efficient cause of the origin.


Uttarotpade cha purvanirodhat  |II.2.20 (191)

(Nor can there be a causal relation between nescience, etc.) because on the origination of the subsequent thing the preceding one ceases to be.

Uttarotpade - at the time of the production of the subsequent thing;
Cha - and;
Purvanirodhat - because the antecedent one has ceased to exist, because of the destruction of the previous thing.
(Uttara -  in the next, in the subsequent; Utpade - on the origination, on the production.)


Asati pratijnoparodho yaugapadyamanyatha  |II.2.21 (192)

If non-existence (of cause) be assumed, (while yet the effect takes place), there results contradiction of the admitted principle or proposition. Otherwise there would result simultaneity (of cause and effect).

Asati - in the case of non-existence of cause, if it be admitted that an effect is produced without a cause;
Pratijna - proposition, admitted principle;
Uparodhah - contradiction, denial;
Yaugapadyam - simultaneity, simultaneous existence;
Anyatha - otherwise.


Pratisankhyapratisankhyanirodhapraptiravicchedat  |II.2.22 (193)

Conscious and unconscious destruction would be impossible on account of non-interruption.

Pratisankhya nirodha - conscious destruction, destruction due to some cause or agency; causal destruction, destruction depending upon the volition of conscious entity;
Apratisankhya nirodha - unconscious destruction, destruction not depending upon any voluntary agency;
Apraptih - non-attainment, impossibility;
Avicchedat - because of non-interruption, because it goes on without interruption.


Ubhayatha cha doshat  |II.2.23 (194)

And on account of the objections presenting themselves in either case.

Ubhayatha - in either case;
Cha - and, also;
Doshat -  because of objections.


Aakase chaviseshat  |II.2.24 (195)

The cause of Akasa (ether) also not being different (from the two other kinds of destruction it also cannot be a non-entity.)

Akase - in the case of Akasa or ether;
Cha - also, and;
Aviseshat -  because of no specific difference.


Anusmritescha  |II.2.25 (196)

And on account of memory the things are not momentary.

Anusmriteh - on account of memory;
Cha - and.


Nasato’dristatvat  |II.2.26 (197)

(Existence or entity does) not (spring) from non-existence or nonentity, because it is not seen.

Na - not;
Asatah - from non-existence, of the unreal, of a non-entity;
Adrishtatvat - because it is not seen.


Udasinanamapi chaivam siddhih  |II.2.27 (198)

And thus (if existence should spring from non-existence, there would result) the attainment of the goal by the indifferent and nonactive people also.

Udasianam - of the indifferent and non-active;
Api - even, also; Cha - and;
Evam - thus;
Siddih – success, accomplishment, and attainment of the goal.

Nabhavadhikaranam -  Topic 5 (Sutras 28-32) 

Refutation of the Bauddha Idealist


Nabhava upalabdheh  |II.2.28 (199)

The non-existence (of eternal things) cannot be maintained; on account of (our) consciousness (of them).

Na - not; Abhavah - non-existence;
Upalabdheh - because they are perceived, because of perception, because we are conscious of them on account of their being experienced.


Vaidharmyaccha na svapnadivat  |II.2.29 (200)

And on account of the difference in nature (in consciousness between the waking and the dreaming state, the experience of the waking state) is not like dreams, etc., etc.

Vaidharmyat - on account of difference of nature, because of dissimilarity;
Cha - and, also; Na - not;
Svapnadivat - like dreams etc.


Na bhavo’nupalabdheh  |II.2.30 (201)

The existence (of Samskaras or mental impressions) is not possible (according to the Bauddhas), on account of the absence of perception (of external things).

Na - not;
Bhavah - existence (of impressions or Samskaras);
Anupalabdheh - because they are not perceived, because (external things) are not experienced.


Kshanikatvacca  |II.2.31 (202)

And on account of the momentariness (of the Alayavijnana or egoconsciousness it cannot be the abode of the Samskaras or mental impressions).

Kshanikatvat - on account of the momentariness;
Cha - and.


Sarvathanupapattescha   |II.2.32 (203)

And (as the Bauddha system is) illogical in every way (it cannot be accepted).

Sarvatha - in every way; Anupapatteh - because of its not being proved  illogical;
Cha - and, also.

Ekasminnasambhavadhikaranam -  Topic 6 (Sutras 33-36) 

Refutation of the Jaina Doctrine


Naikasminnasambhavat  |II.2.33 (204)

On account of the impossibility (of contradictory attributes) in one and the same thing at the same time (the Jaina doctrine is) not (to be accepted).

Na - not;
Ekasmin - in one;
Asambhavat -  on account of the impossibility.


Evam chatmakartsnyam  |II.2.34 (205)

And in the same way (there results from the Jaina doctrine) the non-universality of the soul.

Evam - thus, in the same way, as it is suggested by the Jaina theory;
Cha - also, and;
Atma-akartsnyam -  non-universality of the soul.


Na cha paryayadapyavirodho vikaradibhyah  |II.2.35 (206)

Nor is non-contradiction to be derived from the succession (of parts according to and departing from the soul to such different bodies) on account of the change, etc., (of the soul).

Na - not; Cha - also, and;
Paryayat - in turn, because of assuming by succession;
Api - even;
Avirodhah - no inconsistency;
Vikaradibhyah -  on account of change, etc.


Antyavasthiteschobhayanityatvadavisesah  |II.2.36 (207)

And on account of the permanency of the final (size of the soul on release) and the resulting permanency of the two (preceding sizes), there is no difference (of size of the soul, at any time).

Antyavasthiteh - because of the permanency of the size at the end;
Cha - and;
Ubhayanityatvat - as both are permanent;
Aviseshah - because there being no difference.

Patyadhikaranam -  Topic 7 (Sutras 37-41) 

Refutation of the Pasupata System


Patyurasamanjasyat  |II.2.37 (208)

The Lord (cannot be the efficient or the operative cause of the world) on account of the inconsistency (of that doctrine).

Patyuh - of the Lord, of Pasupati, of the Lord of animals;
Asamanjasyat -  on account of inconsistency, on account of untenableness, inappropriateness.


Sambandhanupapattescha  |II.2.38 (209)

And because relation (between the Lord and the Pradhana or the souls) is not possible.

Sambandha - relation;
Anupapatteh - because of the impossibility;
Cha - and.


Adhishthananupapattescha  |II.2.39 (210)

And on account of the impossibility of rulership (on the part of the Lord).

Adhisthana - rulership;
Anupapatteh - because of the impossibility;
Cha - and.


Karanavacchenna bhogadibhyah  |II.2.40 (211)

If it be said (that the Lord rules the Pradhana etc.,) just as (the Jiva rules) the senses (which are also not perceived), (we say) no, because of the enjoyment, etc.

Karanavat - like the senses;
Chet - if, if it be conceived.
Na - not (no it cannot be accepted);
Bhogadibhyah -  because of enjoyment, etc.


Antavattvamasarvajnata va  |II.2.41 (212)

(There would follow from their doctrine the Lord’s) being subject to destruction or His non-omniscience.

Antavattvam - finiteness, terminableness, subject to destruction;
Asarvajnata - absence of Omniscience;
Va - or.

Utpattyasambhavadhikaranam -  Topic 8 (Sutras 42-45) 

Refutation of the Bhagavata or the Pancharatra school


Utpattyasambhavat  |II.2.42 (213)

On account of the impossibility of the origination (of the individual soul from the Highest Lord), (the doctrine of the Bhagavatas or the Pancharatra doctrine cannot be accepted).

Utpatti - causation, origination, creation;
Asambhavat -  on account of the impossibility.


Na cha kartuh karanam  |II.2.43 (214)

And (it is) not (observed that) the instrument (is produced) from the agent.

Na - not; Cha - and;
Kartuh -   from the agent;
Karanam -  the instrument.


Vijnanadibhave va tadapratishedhah  |II.2.44 (215)

Or if the (four Vyuhas are said to) possess infinite knowledge, etc., yet there is no denial of that (viz., the objection raised in Sutra 42).

Vijnanadibhave - if intelligence etc. exist;
Va - or, on the other hand; Tat - that (Tasya iti);
Apratishedhah -  no denial (of).
(Vijnana - knowledge;  Adi - and the rest; Bhave - of the nature (of).)


Vipratishedhacca  |II.2.45 (216)

And because of contradictions (the Pancharatra doctrine is untenable).

Vipratishedhat - because of contradiction;
Cha - and.