Brahma Sutras Chapter 1. 3

Brahma Sutras 1.3

Dyubhvadyadhikaranam  -  Topic 1 (Sutras 1-7) 

The abode of heaven, earth etc. is Brahman


Dyubhvadyayatanam svasabdat  |I.3.1 (64)

The abode of heaven, earth, etc., (is Brahman) on account of the term, ‘own’ i.e., ‘Self’.

Dyu - heaven;
Bhu - earth;
Adi - and the rest;
Ayatanam - abode;
Sva - own;
Sabdat - from the word (Sva sabdat - on account of the word ‘Self’).


Muktopasripyavyapadesat  |I.3.2 (65)

Because of the declaration (in the scriptures) that that is to be attained by the liberated.

Mukta upasripya - to be attained by the liberated;
Vyapadesat - because of declaration.


Nanumanamatacchabdat  |I.3.3 (66)

(The abode of heaven etc.) is not that which is inferred i.e. Pradhana because there is no term indicating it.

Na - not;
Anumanam - that which is inferred i.e. Pradhana;
Atad sabdat - because there is no word denoting it.


Pranabhriccha  |I.3.4 (67)

(Nor) also the individual soul.

Pranabhrit - the living or individual soul, supporter of Prana, i.e., Jiva;
Cha - also; (Na - not).


Bhedavyapadesat  |I.3.5 (68)

(Also) on account of the declaration of difference (between) individual soul and the abode of heaven etc.

Bhedavyapadesat - on account of difference being mentioned.


Prakaranat  |I.3.6 (69)

On account of the subject matter.

Prakaranat - On account of the subject matter, from the context.


Sthityadanabhyam cha  |I. 3.7 (70)

And on account of the two conditions of remaining unattached and eating (of which the former is characteristic of the Supreme Self, the latter of the individual soul).

Sthiti - abiding, existence;
Adanabhyam - eating;
Cha - and.

Bhumadhikaranam -  Topic 2 (Sutras 8-9) 

Bhuma is Brahman


Bhuma samprasadadadhyupadesat  |I.3.8 (71)

Bhuma (is Brahman) because it is taught after the state of deep sleep (i.e. after Prana or the vital air which remains awake even in that state).

Bhuma - the vast, the Infinite, the full;
Samprasadat adhi - beyond the state of deep sleep (here the vital principle or Prana); Upadesat - because of the teaching.


Dharmopapattescha  |I.3.9 (72)

And because the attributes (declared in the scriptural passage to Bhuma) apply appropriately only to Para Brahman.

Dharma - qualities, attributes;
Upapatteh - because of the suitability;
Cha - and.

Aksharadhikaranam -  Topic 3 (Sutras 10-12) 

Akshara is Brahman


Aksharamambarantadhriteh  |I.3.10 (73)

The Imperishable (is Brahman) on account of (its) supporting everything up to Akasa (ether).

Aksharam - the Imperishable;
Ambaranta dhriteh - because it supports all up to Akasa.


Sa cha prasasanat  |I.3.11 (74)

This (supporting) on account of the command (attributed to the Imperishable, can be the work of the Supreme Self only and not of the Pradhana).

Sa - this (the quality of supporting everything up to ether);
Cha - and, also;
Prasasanat - because of the command.


Anyabhavavyavrittescha  |I.3.12 (75)

And on account of (the Sruti) separating (the Akshara) from that nature is different (from Brahman).

Anya - another;
Bhava - nature;
Vyavritteh - on account of the exclusion.

Ikshatikarmavyapadesadhikaranam -  Topic 4 (Sutra 13) 

The Highest person to be meditated upon is the Highest Brahman


Ikshatikarmavyapadesat sah  |I.3.13 (76)

Because of His being mentioned as the object of sight, He (who is to be meditated upon is Brahman).

Ikshati - seeing, realising;
Karma - object;
Vyapadesat - because of his being mentioned;
Sah - he.

Daharadhikaranam -  Topic 5 (Sutras 14-21) 

The Dahara or the ‘Small Akasa’ is Brahman


Dahara uttarebhyah  |I.3.14 (77)

The small (ether, Akasa, is Brahman) on account of the subsequent arguments or expression).

Daharah - the small;
Uttarebhyah - from subsequent texts or expressions or arguments.


Gatisabdabhyam tatha hi drishtam lingam cha  |I.3.15 (78)

The small Akasa (ether) is Brahman on account of the action of going (into Brahman) and of the word (Brahmaloka); because thus it is seen (i.e. the individual souls go into Brahman) is seen elsewhere in other Sruti texts; and this daily going of the souls into Brahman (during deep sleep) is an inferential sign by means of which we may properly interpret the word ‘Brahmaloka’).

Gatisabdabhyam - on account of the going and of the word;
Tatha hi - thus, like;
Drishtam - it is seen; 
Lingam - mark, sign from which something may be inferred;
Cha - and.


Dhritescha mahimno’syasminnupalabdheh  |I.3.16 (79)

Moreover on account of the supporting also (attributed to it) the small ether must be Brahman, because this greatness is observed in this (Brahman only according to other scriptural passages).

Dhriteh - on account of supporting (of the world by the Akasa or ether);
Cha - and, moreover, also;
Asya mahimnah - this greatness;
Asmin - in Brahman;
Upalabdheh - on account of being observed or found.


Prasiddhescha  |I.3.17 (80)

Also because of the well-known meaning (of Akasa as Brahman the small Akasa is Brahman).

Prasiddheh - of the well-known (meaning);
Cha - also


Itaraparamarsat sa iti chen nasambhavat  |I.3.18 (81)

If it is said that the other one (i.e. the individual soul) is meant on account of a reference to it (made in a complementary passage) (we say) no, on account of the impossibility.

Itara - the other one, that is the Jiva;
Paramarsat - on account of reference;
Sa - he (the individual soul);
Iti - thus; Chet - if;
Na - not;
Asambhavat - on account of impossibility.


Uttaracchedavirbhutasvarupastu  |I.3.19 (82)

If it be said that for subsequent texts (it appears that the individual soul is meant, we say that what is there referred to is) rather (the individual soul in so far) as its real nature has become manifest (i.e. as it is non-different from Brahman).

Uttarat - from the subsequent texts of the Sruti;
Chet - if;
Avirbhutasvarupat - with its true nature made manifest;
Tu - but.


Anyarthascha paramarsah  |I.3.20 (83)

And the reference (to the individual soul) is for a different purpose.

Anyarthah - for a different purpose;
Cha - and;
Paramarsah - reference.


Alpasruteriti chet taduktam  |I.3.21 (84)

If it be said that on account of the scriptural declaration of the smallness (of the ether) (the Brahman cannot be meant) (we say that) that has already been explained.

Alpasruteh - because of the Sruti declaring its smallness;
Iti - thus;
Chet - if;
Tat - that;
Uktam - has already been explained.

Anukrityadhikaranam -  Topic 6 (Sutras 22-23) 

Everything shines after Brahman


Anukritestasya cha  |I.3.22 (85)

On account of the acting after (i.e. the shining after) (that after which sun, moon, etc. are said to shine is the Supreme Self) and (because by the light) of Him (everything else is lighted).

Anukriteh - because of the acting after, from imitation, from the following;
Tasya - its;
Cha - and.


Api cha smaryate  |I.3.23 (86)

Moreover the Smriti also speaks of him i.e. Brahman to be the universal light.

Api cha - moreover, also;
Smaryate - the Smriti states.

Pramitadhikaranam -  Topic 7 (Sutras 24-25) 

The person of the size of a thumb is Brahman


Sabdedeva pramitah  |I.3.24 (87)

From the very word (viz., the term Lord applied to it) the (person) measured (by the size of the thumb) (is Brahman).

Sabdat - from the very word;
Eva - even, only, itself;
Pramitah - measured, i.e., described as having the size of the thumb.


Hridyapekshaya tu manushyadhikaratvat  |I. 3 25 (88)

But with reference to the heart (the highest Brahman is said to be of the size of a thumb) as man alone is entitled (to the study of  the Vedas, to practise meditation and attain Self -realisation).

Hridi - in the heart, with reference to the heart;
Apekshaya - by reference to, in consideration of;
Tu - but;
Manushyadhikaratvat - because of the privilege of men.

Devatadhikaranam -  Topic 8 (Sutras 26-33) 

The Devas also are entitled to the study of Vedas


Taduparyapi Baadarayanah sambhavat  |I.3.26 (89)

Also (beings) above them (viz., men) (are entitled for the study and practice of the Vedas) on account of the possibility (of it) according to Badarayana.

Tad upari - above them i.e. higher than men namely Devas;
Api - also, even;
Baadarayanah - the sage Baadarayana is of opinion;
Sambhavat - because (it is) possible.


Virodhah karmaniti chet, na, anekapratipatterdarsanat  |I.3.27 (90)

If it be said that (the corporeality of the gods involves) a contradiction to sacrifices; (we say) no, because we find (in the scriptures) the assumption (by the gods) of many (forms at one and the same time).

Virodhah - contradiction;
Karmani - In the sacrifices;
Iti - thus;
Chet - if; Na - not;
Aneka - many (bodies);
Pratipatteh - because of the assumption;
Darsanat - because it is found (in the scriptures).


Sabda iti chet, na, atah prabhavat pratyakshanumanabhyam  |I.3.28 (91)

If it be said (that a contradiction will result) in respect of the word (we say) no, because (the world) originates from the word, as is known from direct perception (Sruti) and inference (Smriti).

Sabda - regarding Vedic words;
Iti - thus;
Chet - if;  Na - no;
Atah - from this, from these words;
Prabhavat - because of the creation;
Pratyakshanumanabhyam - from direct perception (Sruti) and inference  (Smriti).


Ata eva cha nityatvam  |I.3.29 (92)

From this very reason also there follows the eternity of the Vedas.

Ata eva - therefore, from this very reason;
Cha - also;
Nityatvam - The eternity of the Vedas.


Samananamarupatvat cha avrittavapyavirodho darsanat smritescha  |I.3.30 (93)

And on account of the sameness of names and forms in every fresh cycle there is no contradiction (to the eternity of the words of the Vedas) even in the revolving of the world cycles, as is seen from the Sruti and Smriti.

Samananamarupatvat - on account of similar names and forms;
Cha - and;
Avrittau - in the cycles of creation;
Api - even, also;
Avirodhah - no inconsistency or contradiction;
Darsanat - from the Sruti;
Smriteh - from the Smriti,
Cha - and.


Madhvadishvasambhavadanadhikaram Jaiminih  |I.3.31 (94)

On account of the impossibility (of the gods being qualified) for Madhu Vidya etc., Jaimini (is of opinion that the gods) are not qualified (either for Upasana or for the Brahma Vidya or the knowledge of the Self).

Madhu adishu - in Madhu Vidya etc.;
Asambhavat - on account of the impossibility;
Anadhikaram - disqualification;
Jaiminih - Jaimini is of opinion.


Jyotishi bhavacca  |I.3.32 (95)

And (the gods are not qualified for Vidyas) because (the words ‘sun, moon’ etc., spoken of as gods) are used in the sense of mere spheres of light.

Jyotishi - as mere spheres of light;
Bhavat - because used in the sense;
Cha - and.


Bhavam tu Baadarayano’sti hi  |I. 3.33 (96)

But Baadarayana, on the other hand (maintains) the existence (of qualification on the part of the gods for Brahma Vidya); for there are (passages indicatory of that; body, desires etc., which qualify one for such knowledge do exist in the case of the gods).

Bhavam - the existence (of the qualification to practise the meditation like Madhu Vidya etc.); Tu - but;
Baadarayanah - the sage Baadarayana (maintains);
Asti - does exist;
Hi - because.

Apasudradhikaranam -  Topic 9 (Sutras 34-38) 

The right of the Sudras to the study of Vedas discussed


Sugasya tadanadarasravanat tadadravanat suchyate hi  |I.3.34 (97)

(King Janasruti) was in grief on hearing some contemptuous words used about him by the sage in the form of a swan; owing to his approaching Raikva, overwhelming with that grief, Raikva called him Sudra; for it (the grief) is pointed at by Raikva.

Suk - grief;
Asya - his;
Tat - that, namely that grief;
Anadarasravanat - from hearing his (the Rishi’s) disrespectful speech;
Tada - then; Adravanat - because of going to him i.e, to Raikva;
Suchyate - is referred to;
Hi - because.


Kshatriyatvavagateschottaratra chaitrarathena lingat  |I.3.35 (98)

And because the Kshatriyahood (of Janasruti) is known from the inferential mark (supplied by his being mentioned) later on with Chaitraratha (who was a Kshatriya himself).

Kshatriyatva - the state of his being a Kshatriya;
Avagateh - on account of being known or understood;
Cha - and;
Uttaratra - latter on in a subsequent part of the text;
Chaitrarathena - with Chaitraratha;
Lingat - because of the indicatory sign or the inferential mark.


Samskaraparamarsat tadabhavabhilapacca  |I.3.36 (99)

Because purificatory ceremonies are mentioned (in the case of the twice-born) and their absence is declared (in the case of the Sudra).

Samskara - the purificatory ceremonies, the investiture with sacred thread;
Paramarsat - because of the reference;
Tat - that ceremony;
Abhava - absence;
Abhilapat - because of the declaration;
Cha -  and.


Tadabhavanirdharane cha pravritteh  |I.3.37 (100)

And because the inclination (on the part of Gautama to impart knowledge is seen only) on the ascertainment of the absence of Sudrahood (in Jabala Satyakama).

Tad - that, namely the Sudrahood;
Abhava - absence;
Nirdharane - in ascertainment;
Cha - and;
Pravritteh - from inclination.


Sravanadhyayanarthapratishedhat smritescha  |I.3.38 (101)

And on account of the prohibition in Smriti of (the Sudras) hearing, studying and understanding (the Veda) and performing Vedic rites (they are not entitled to the knowledge of Brahman).

Sravana - hearing;
Adhyayana - studying;
Artha - understanding;
Pratishedhat - on account of the prohibition;
Smriteh - in the Smriti;
Cha - and.

Kampanadhikaranam -  Topic 10 (Sutra 39) 

The Prana in which everything trembles is Brahman

Kampanat  |I.3.39 (102)

(Prana is Brahman) on account of the vibration or trembling (spoken of the whole world).

Kampanat -  on account of shaking or vibration.

Jyotiradhikaranam -  Topic 11 (Sutra 40) 

The ‘light’ is Brahman


Jyotirdarsanat  |I.3.40 (103)

The light (is Brahman) on account of that (Brahman) being seen (in the scriptural passage).

Jyotih - light;
Darsanat - on account of (Brahman) being seen.

Arthantaratvadivyapadesadhikaranam -  Topic 12 (Sutra 41) 

The Akasa is Brahman


Akaso’rthantaratvadivyapadesat  |I.3.41 (104)

Akasa (is Brahman) because it is declared to be something different etc., (from names and forms).

Akasah - Akasa;
Arthantaratvadi-vyapadesat - because it is declared to be something different;
Artha - with a meaning;
Antaratva - differentness.
Adi - etc.;
Vyapadesat - from statement on account of designation.

Sushuptyutkrantyadhikaranam -  Topic 13 (Sutras 42-43) 

The Self consisting of knowledge is Brahman


Sushuptyutkrantyorbhedena  |I.3.42 (105)

Because of the Highest Self being shown as different (from the individual soul) in the states of deep sleep and death.

Sushupti utkrantyoh - In deep sleep and death;
Bhedena - by the difference, as different;
(Sushupti - deep sleep; Utkranti - departing at the time of death).


Patyadisabdebhyah  |I.3.43 (106)

(The Being referred to in Sutra 42 is Brahman) because of the words ‘Lord’ etc., being applied to Him. "He is the controller, the Ruler, the Lord of all." Bri. Up. IV-4-22.

Patyadi sabdebhyah -  On account of words like ‘Lord’ etc., (the self in the text under discussion is the Superme Self).