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Gopāla - Tāpanī Upanishad | Chapter 2

Chapter Two | Gopāla - Tāpanī Upanishad

1 and 2

Once, after they had passed the entire night with Him, the passionate girls of Vraja [the gopis] spoke to the cowherd boy Krishna, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He also spoke to them.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

In Mathura and Dvārakā, Krishna is a king and enjoys royal pastimes, while in Gokula He enjoys pastimes as a cowherd boy. He remains in the highest spiritual planet, Goloka Vṛndāvana, enjoying these pastimes.

3

The gopis [cowherd girls] said: "To what Brāhman [priest] should charity be given?"

4

Krishna said: "Durvasa."

5

The gopis said: "How will we cross the [river] Yamuna’s waters and approach Him, from whom great blessings will come?"

6

Krishna said: "Say the words Krishna the brahmachari [sexually chaste one], and the [river] Yamuna will give you a path.

7

"By remembering Me, a shallow person becomes deep.
By remembering Me, an impure person becomes pure.
By remembering Me, an impious person becomes pious.
By remembering Me, one full of material desires becomes desireless.
By remembering Me, a fool becomes learned."

8

After hearing these words, they meditated on Durvasa, and with these words crossed the Yamuna.

They went to the very sacred ashram [temple] and bowed down before Durvasa Muni, the best of sages. They gave to the Brāhman [priest] delicious foods made with milk and ghee.

9

Pleased, he bathed, ate, blessed them, and gave them permission to go.

10

They said: "How will we cross the Yamuna?"

11

He said: "Meditate on me as a sage that eats only Durva grass, and the Yamuna will give you a path."

12

Gandharvī [Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, also known as Rādhā, the lover of Krishna], the best among [the gopis], reflected for a moment.

13

She said:

"How is Krishna a brahmachari [sexually chaste one]? How is this sage a person that eats only Durba grass?"

14

Accepting her as their leader, the other girls became silent.

15

Durvasa Muni replied:

"Sound is contained within the element of ether, although sound and ether are different. Sound is contained within ether. This ether does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

16

"Touch is contained within the element of air, although touch and air are different. Touch is contained within air. This air does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

17

"Form is contained within the element of fire, although form and fire are different. Form is contained within fire. This fire does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

18

"Taste is contained within the element of water, although taste and waste are different. Taste is contained within water. This water does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

19

"Aroma is contained within the element of earth, although aroma and earth are different. Aroma is contained within earth. This earth does not know. I am spirit. How can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

20

"It is the mind that remains among the senses and accepts them.

21

"When spirit is everything how does one think? Where does one go? I am spirit, how can I be a materialistic enjoyer?

22

"Your beloved Krishna is the original creator of the two kinds of bodies.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The two kinds of bodies are the gross (physical) and subtle (mental) bodies.

23

"On the tree of the body are two birds. One is an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is a witness. The other is an enjoyer. They are an enjoyer and a non-enjoyer. The first enjoys, and the second is Krishna.

24

"In Him we do not find material so-called knowledge and ignorance. This ignorance and real knowledge are different. How can Krishna, who is full of real knowledge, become a materialistic enjoyer?

25 and 26

"He who desires pleasure is desireful. He who does not desire pleasures is not desireful.

27

"Krishna, who is free from birth and death, who is unchanging, who cannot be cut, who stays by the Yamuna [river], who stays among the Surabhī cows, who protects the Surabhī cows, who stays among the cowherd boys, who stays in all the Vedas [scriptures], who is glorified by all the Vedas, who has entered all living entities, and who controls all living entities, is your husband."

28

Gandharvī [Rādhā] said:

"Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead taken birth among us as a cowherd boy? O sage, how do you know this about Krishna? What is His mantra? What is His abode? Why has He taken birth in Devakī’s womb? Who is His elder brother Balarāma? How is He worshipped? Why has the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is far above the world of matter, descended to this Earth?"

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

The word Devakī here may also be interpreted to mean Yaśodā. This is described in the Ādi Purāṇa:

"Nanda's wife has two names: Yaśodā and Devakī."

Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī describes Lord Krishna's birth in the following words (Bhāgavatam 10.3.8):

"Then the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, who is situated in the core of everyone's heart, appeared in the heart of Devakī in the dense darkness of night, like the full moon rising on the eastern horizon, because Devakī was of the same category as Śrī Krishna."

29

He said:

"In the beginning, only Lord Nārāyaṇa existed. In Him, the material worlds are woven as thread on a loom. From His lotus heart the deva Brahma was born.

30

"When Brahma performed severe austerities, Lord Nārāyaṇa granted him a boon.

31

"Brahma chose a question.

32

"Lord Nārāyaṇa granted his request.

33 and 34

"Brahma said:

'Among Your many incarnations, which is the best, the one that makes humans and devas happy, the one that, remembering Him, they become liberated from repeated birth and death? Why is this incarnation the best?'

35

"Lord Nārāyaṇa said:

36

'As on the summit of Mount Meru are seven cities that fulfil all desires, so on the Earth are seven cities that fulfil desires and grant liberation. Among them the city of Gopāla Puri is directly the spiritual world.

37

In this city the desires of the devas and all other creatures are all fulfilled and everyone attains liberation.

38

Protected by My chakra [sharp, circular weapon], this city of Mathura [the symbolic birthplace of Krishna, or Gopāla Puri, stands in this world as a lotus stands in a lake.

39

Gopāla Puri contains these [twelve] forests: the great forest of Brhadvana, Madhuvana, the former residence of the Madhu demon, Talavana, full of palm trees, delightful Kamyavana, great Bahulavana, Kumudavana, full of lotus flowers and water lilies, Khadiravana, full of Khadira trees, Bhadravana, the favourite spot of Lord Balarāma, Bhandiravana, the great forest of Banyan trees, Srivana, the abode of the goddess of fortune, Lohavana, the former residence of the demon Loha, and Vṛndāvana, ruled by the goddess Vrnda-devi.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

The word bhadra here means "the place where Balabhadra (Balarāma) enjoys pastimes."

40

In these forests the devas, human beings, Gandharvas, Nāgas, and Kinnaras sing and dance.

41

The twelve Ādityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vāsus, seven sages, Brahma, Narada, five Vināyakas, Viresvara, Rudresvara, Ambikesvara, Ganesvara, Nilakanthesvara, Viśveśvara, Gopalesvara, Bhadreśvara, and 24 other liṅgas reside there.

42

These forests are divided into two groups: Krishna-Vāṇa, or Krishna’s forests, and Bhadra-Vāṇa, or Balarāma’s forests. Among these twelve forests some are sacred and others are most sacred.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

Kṛṣṇa’s forests are: 1. Brhadvana 2. Madhuvana 3. Talavana 4. Kamyavana 5. Bahulavana 6. Kumudavana 7. Khadiravana and 8. Vṛndāvana.

Balarāma's forests are 1. Bhadravana 2. Bhandiravana 3. Srivana, and 4. Lauhavana.

43

There, the devas stay. There, the perfect beings attained perfection.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

In this connection the Gautamiya Tantra explains:

"In subtle forms the demigods and great sages reside in Vṛndāvana."

44

In this place are a Deity of Rāma, a Deity of Pradyumna, a Deity of Aniruddha, and a Deity of Krishna.

45

In this way there are twelve Deities in the forests of Mathura.

46

The Rudras worship the first Deity, Brahma worships the second, Brahma’s sons worship the third, the Maruts worship the fourth, the Vināyakas worship the fifth, the Vāsus worship the sixth, the sages worship the seventh, the Gandharvas worship the eighth, the Apsarās worship the ninth, the tenth Deity is now invisible, the eleventh Deity has gone to His own planet, and the twelfth Deity is now on the Earth.

47

They who worship this Deity surpass death and attain liberation. They cross beyond the three-fold miseries of birth, old-age and death.

48

"'There are these verses: Lord Krishna, accompanied by His three potencies, and by Balarāma, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, and Rukmiṇī, stays in delightful Mathura Puri [the symbolic birthplace of Krishna, which is worshipped by Brahma and the other devas and protected by the conch, cakra, club, and Śārṅga bow.

These four names are identical with the name Om.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The names Balarāma, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Krishna are identical with the name OṀ.

49

"'One should think: "I am spiritual, beyond material passion." One should think: "I am Lord Gopāla’s." In this way, one attains liberation. He realizes his spiritual nature. He becomes a knower of spirit.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

As a ray of sunlight is, in one sense, identical with the sun, in the same way, the individual living entity is, in one sense, identical with Lord Gopāla.

50

"'Because since the beginning of creation He lovingly protects (alati) the conditioned souls (gopa), He is known as Gopāla. Om tat sat. I am a spirit. I am a part-and-parcel of Krishna. My spiritual form is eternally full of bliss. Om.

51

"'The Supreme Personality of Godhead is therefore known as Gopāla.

52

"'With all one’s heart one should think: "I am Gopāla’s."

53

"'Lord Gopāla is unmanifest, limitless, and eternal.

54

"Lord Nārāyaṇa continued:

'O Brahma, decorated with a forest-flower garland, and holding a conch, disk, mace and lotus, I will reside eternally in Mathura [the symbolic birthplace of Krishna.

55

"'O Brahma, he who with all his heart meditates on Me, whose form is the resting place of all forms, whose form is supremely powerful and splendid, whose form is wonderful, and who has no material form, goes to MY abode. Of this there is no doubt.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The word Viśva-rūpam here means "He in whom are all forms." Some texts give the word here as cit-svarūpam, or "he whose form is spiritual."

The word param-jyotiḥ means "powerful" or "splendid." The word svarūpam means "He whose form is extraordinary." The word rūpa-varjitam means "He who has no material form." The word mat-padam means "My abode."

56

"'O Brahma, a resident of this earth planet who remains in the district of Mathura and worships Me as I appear in the form of the Deity, becomes very dear to Me.

57

"'You should always worship Me as Krishna in Mathura.

58

"'Four kinds of men worship Me.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

These four kinds of devotees are described by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-Gītā (7.16):

"Those who are distressed, inquisitive, wise and those in need of money, engage in My devotional service."

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The four kinds of worshippers described here are the devotees of Lord Vāsudeva, Lord Sankarṣaṇa, Lord Pradyumna, and Lord Aniruddha.

59

"'Following the devotional process prescribed for the age, intelligent devotees in this world worship Lord Gopāla, who is accompanied by His elder brother Balarāma and queen Rukmiṇī.

60

"'I am unborn, eternal Gopāla. I am eternal Pradyumna. I am Rāma. I am Aniruddha. He who is intelligent worships Me.

61

"'Free from all impure desires, the residents of Krishnavana and Bhadravana worship Me, following the regulations of bhakti [devotion]. I Myself have spoken.

62

"'Even they who formerly rejected the principles of religion and were swallowed up by the age of Kali, may become devoted to Me, and also reside in Mathura [the symbolic birthplace of Krishna.

63

"'Anyone who becomes My sincere devotee becomes very dear to Me. As dear as You and Your sons are, as dear as Shiva and his associates, as dear as the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī.

64

"Brahma said: 'How has the one Supreme Personality of Godhead become four Deities? How has the single sacred syllable OṀ become many?'

65

"The Lord said to him: 'Before the material world was manifest, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is one without a second, existed. From Him came the impersonal Brahman. From that came the syllable OṀ. From OṀ came the mahat-tattva. From the mahat-tattva came false-ego. From false-ego came the five tanmātras. From them came the elements. OṀ is covered by these things.

66

"'I am the sacred syllable. I am OṀ. I am ageless, deathless, nectarine, the fearless Supreme Great. I am liberated. I am unchanging.

67

"'The eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead manifested Himself as the all-pervading universal form. In the same way the Lord, who is one without a second, by His transcendental potency expanded Himself into four.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

That the Lord is the master of transcendental potencies is described in the Śāstras:

"The sages declare that eternal Lord Vishnu is the master of all transcendental potencies."

68

"'The sacred syllable OṀ consists of three letters: a, u and m. Balarāma, the son of Rohiṇī, is the letter a. Splendid Pradyumna is the letter u.

69

Intelligent Aniruddha is letter M. Lord Krishna, in whom the entire universe rests, is the ardha-matra letter (M), which completes the syllable O.

70

"'Rukmiṇī is Lord Krishna’s wife. She is the creator of the worlds and the root of material nature.

71(a)

"'The Vedic literatures explain that the goddess of fortune appeared among the women of Vraja.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The following statement is found in the Skanda Purāṇa, Matsya Purāṇa, and other Śāstras.

"Rukmiṇī is the Lord's consort in Dvārakā and Rādhā is His consort in Vṛndāvana."

The Rk-parisista explains:

"Lord Mādhava always stays by Rādhā’s side. Rādhā always stays by Mādhava’s side."

71 (b)

Learned transcendentalists say that the Lord’s potency is the syllable OṀ.

72

"'Therefore, all-pervading Lord Gopāla is the syllable OṀ.

73

"'Learned transcendentalists declare that the syllable O is not different from the sacred syllable Klīm.

74

"'He who meditates on Me as I appear in Mathura attains liberation.

s 75-78

"'In his mind one should meditate on Me standing on the blossomed eight-petaled lotus of the heart, My two feet marked with conchshell, flag and umbrella, My chest marked with Śrīvatsa and splendid with the Kauṭabhī gem, My four arms holding the conch, cakra, mace, and Śārṅga bow, My arms decorated with armlets, My neck splendid with a flower garland, My head circled by a splendid crown, My ears decorated with glistening shark-shaped earrings, My form splendid and handsome, holding a flute and buffalo-horn bugle, and granting fearlessness to the devotees.

79

"'When the entire universe is churned (mathyate) by the churning-rod of spiritual knowledge, the butter produced is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Mathura. That is why it is called Mathura.

80

"'In my heart I meditate on the material world with its eight dik-palas (protectors of the directions) as a blossomed lotus flower growing in the ocean of repeated birth and death.

81

"'The sun and moon are the splendour of My body. Golden Mount Meru is My splendid flag. Brahmaloka as My umbrella. The seven lower planetary systems are My feet.

82

"'I am marked with Śrīvatsa and svarūpa. Therefore the learned sages call me Srivatsa-lanchana (marked with Śrīvatsa).

83

"'Aware of My supremacy, the sages declare that the splendour of the sun, moon, fire, and eloquent speech has come from My glittering Kaustubha jewel.

84

"'The four arms of My universal form are goodness [sattva], passion [rajas], ignorance [tamas], and false-ego. The five material elements are the conchshell I carry in the hand that is the mode of passion [rajas].

85

"'Childishness is said to be the chakra, the original illusory potency the Śārṅga bow, and the universe the lotus flower in the hand of the universal form.

86

"'The origin of ignorance is known as the club I always carry in My hand.

87

"'Religion, economic development, and sense-gratification are the splendid bracelets that eternally decorate the wrists of My universal form.

88

"'The neck, said to be the quality-free Brahman, is garlanded by the first unborn. O Brahma, your mind-born sons have elaborately described this garland.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The word "Nirguṇā" here refers to Brahman. The "first unborn" here is the māyā potency, splendid with knowledge and ignorance. The mind-born sons are the four Kumāras.

89

"'The sages say that My eternal form is the crown.

90

"'The two things above the changing material world are My two glittering earrings.

The two things above the changing material world are My two glittering earrings.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

The two things are the spiritual paths of Sānkhya and yoga. This is confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam:

"Sānkhya and Yoga are the two shark-shaped earrings worn by the Supreme Person."

91

"'He who meditates in this way is eternally dear to me. He attains liberation. He becomes liberated. I give Myself to him.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

This is confirmed in the Śruti-śāstra:

"The devotees of the Lord become liberated from the grip of the illusory potency."

92

"'O Brahma, I have said all that will be about My two forms: one made of the modes of nature, and the other beyond the modes of nature.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The form made of the modes of material nature is the universal form, and the form beyond the modes of material nature is the auspicious transcendental form.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

The form beyond the modes of material nature here is the Lord's two-armed and four-armed forms.

93

"Brahma said:

'What are the ornaments worn by the Deities You have described? How do the Maruts, Rudras, Brahma, sons of Brahma, Vināyakas, twelve Ādityas, Vāsus, Apsarās, and Gandharvas worship them? Who is the Deity that has gone to His own abode? Who is the Deity now invisible? Who is the Deity the humans worship?'

94

"Lord Nārāyaṇa said to him:

'These twelve unmanifested transcendental Deities are present on all planets, among all devas and all human beings.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The word unmanifested here means unmanifested to material eyes.

95

As a Rudra among the Rudras, as a Brahma among the followers of Brahma, as a deva among the devas, as a human being among the humans, as the destroyer of obstacles (Gaṇeśa) among the Vināyakas, as Sūrya Nārāyaṇa among the Ādityas, as a Gandharva among the Gandharvas, as an Apsarā among the Apsarās, and as a Vāsu among the Vāsus, My form, which fulfils desires, is present even when it is invisible. Whether visible or invisible in this world, My form is always stays in My own abode.

Commentary by Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana:

When the Lord is invisible He is present in the form of hearing about Him.

The Lord's abode is Vṛndāvana, which the Lord Himself describes in the Gautamiya Tantra:

“This is beautiful Vṛndāvana, My transcendental abode. Its size is five yojanas. Its forest is my own form.

The Yamuna River, where currents of nectar flow, also bears the name Suṣumnā. In this place the demigods and sages always stay in subtle forms.

I, who am the master of all the demigods, never leave this forest. Yuga after yuga, I am sometimes visible and sometimes invisible here.

Then My splendid, handsome form cannot be seen by material eyes.

96

"'My form is also present as the Deity of ignorance [tamas], the Deity of passion [rajas], and the Deity of Goodness [sattva].

97

"'My humanlike form, which is eternal and full of transcendental knowledge, is present in devotional service.

98

oṁ prāṇātmane
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai prāṇātmane namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to the Super-soul, who is present in the life-breath. Om tat sat. Bhu Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, the Super-soul, who is present in the life-breath.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

Here is the answer to the question "How the Lord should be worshipped?" Here the Lord reveals mantras to be used in His worship.

99

oṁ śrīkṛṣṇāya govindāya gopījanavallabhāya
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to Śrī Krishna, who is Govinda and Gopījana-Vallabhāya, Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

100

oṁ apānātmane
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai apānātmane namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to the Super-soul, who is present in the apāna air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the apāna air.

101

oṁ śrīkṛṣṇāyāniruddhāya
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to Krishna, who is Vāsudeva, Sankarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

102

oṁ vyānātmane
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vyānātmane namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to the Super-soul, who is present in the Vyāna air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the Vyāna air.

103

oṁ śrīkṛṣṇāya rāmāya
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to Śrī Krishna, who is Śrī Rāma. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

104

oṁ udānātmane
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai udānātmane namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to the Super-soul, who is present in the udāna air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the udāna air.

105

oṁ śrīkṛṣṇāya devakīnandanāya
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to Krishna, the son of Devakī. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

106

oṁ samānātmane
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai samānātmane namo namaḥ

"'Om. Obeisances to the Super-soul, who is present in the Samāna air. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him, present in the Samāna air.

107

oṁ śrīgopālāya nijasvarūpāya
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ ..

"'Om. Obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose original form is that of a cowherd boy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

108

oṁ yo'sau pradhānātmā gopāla
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Lord Gopāla is the Super-soul, present in the primordial material energy. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

109

oṁ yo'sāvindriyātmā gopāla
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ .
.

"'Om. Lord Gopāla is the Super-soul, present in the senses. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

110

oṁ yo'sau bhūtātmā gopāla
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Lord Gopāla is the Super-soul, present in the material elements. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

111

oṁ yo'sāvuttamapuruṣo gopāla
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tamai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Lord Gopāla is the Supreme Person. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

That Krishna is the Supreme Person is confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-Gītā (15.17):

"Besides these two there is the greatest living personality, the Lord Himself, who has entered into these worlds and is maintaining them."

112

oṁ yo'sau brahma paraṁ vai brahma
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Lord Gopāla is the Supreme Brahman. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

This statement is confirmed by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-Gītā (14.27):

"I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman."

113

oṁ yo'sau sarvabhūtātmā gopāla
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai namo namaḥ ..

"'Om. Lord Gopāla is the Super-soul in the heart of all beings. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

114

oṁ jāgrat-svapna-suṣuptiturīyaturīyātīto'ntaryāmī gopāla
oṁ tat sad bhūr bhuvaḥ svas
tasmai vai namo namaḥ

"'Om. Surpassing wakefulness, sleep, and deep sleep, Lord Gopāla is beyond the transcendence of the impersonalists. Om tat sat. Bhur Bhuvah and Svaḥ. Obeisances, obeisances to Him.

115

The one Supreme Personality of Godhead is hidden within everything. He is all-pervading. He is in everyone’s heart. He witnesses everyone’s activities. He lives in everyone’s heart. He is the witness. He is Consciousness. His is transcendence. He is beyond the modes of nature.

116

"'Obeisances to Rudra! Obeisances to Āditya! Obeisances to Vināyaka!
Obeisances to Sūrya! Obeisances to Vidyā-devī! Obeisances to Indra!
Obeisances to Agni! Obeisances to Yama! Obeisances to Nirṛti!
Obeisances to Varuṇa! Obeisances to Vāyu! Obeisances to Kubera!
Obeisances to Īśāṇa! Obeisances to Brahma! Obeisances to all devas!'

Commentary by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī:

The demigods are offered respect because they are representatives of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

117

"After giving these most pious prayers to Brahma, who was rapt in Meditation on the Lord’s transcendental form, and after giving him the ability to create the universe, Lord Nārāyaṇa disappeared.

118

"As these instructions were heard from Brahma, Brahma’s sons, and Nārada, so I have spoken them. O Gandharvī [Rādhā], now You may go to Your own home."

Om! O Devas, may we hear with our ears what is auspicious;
May we see with our eyes what is auspicious, O ye worthy of worship!
May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas,
Praising them with our body and limbs steady!
May the glorious Indra bless us!
May the all-knowing Sun bless us!
May Garuda, the thunderbolt for evil, bless us!
May Brihaspati grant us well-being!
Om! Let there be peace in me!
Let there be peace in my environment!
Let there be peace in the forces that act on me!