Sānkhya Aphorisms of Kapila | 4 Book


Now, by means of a collection of narratives, recognized in the Institutes, the means of discriminative knowledge are to be displayed: so, for this purpose the Fourth Book is commenced.

Aph. 1.

As in the case of the king’s son, from instruction as to the truth [comes discrimination between Soul and Nature].

Aph. 2.

As in the case of the goblin, even when the instruction was for the sake of another, [the chance hearer may be benefited].

Aph. 3.

Repetition [is to be made], if not, from once instructing, [the end be gained].

Aph. 4.

As in the case of father and son; since both are seen; [the one, to die, and the other, to be born].

Aph. 5.

One experiences pleasure or pain [alternatively], from [voluntary] abandonment or [forcible] separation; as in the case of a hawk.

Aph. 6.

As in the case of a snake and its skin.

Aph. 7.

Or as an amputated hand.

Aph. 8.

What is not a means [of liberation is] not to be thought about, [as this conduces only] to bondage; as in the case of Bharata.

Aph. 9.

From [association with] many there is obstruction to concentration, through passion, &c.; as in the case of a girl’s shells.

Aph. 10.

Just so, from [the company of] two, also.

Aph. 11.

He who is without hope is happy; like Pingalā.

Aph. 12.

[One may be happy,] even without exertion; like a serpent happy in another’s house.

Aph. 13.

Though he devote himself to many Institutes and teachers, a taking of the essence [is to be made]; as is the case with the bee.

Aph. l4.

The Meditation is not interrupted of him whose mind is intent on one object; like the maker of arrows.

Aph. 15.

Through transgression of the enjoined rules there is failure in the aim; as in the world.

Aph. 16.

Moreover, if they be forgotten; as in the case of the female frog.

Aph. 17.

Not even though instruction be heard is the end gained, without reflexion; as in the case of Virochana.

Aph. 18.

Of those two, it [reflexion,] was seen in the case of Indra [only].

Aph. 19.

Having performed reverence, the duties of a student, and attendance, one has success after a long time; as in his case.

Aph. 20.

There is no determination of the time; as in the case of Vāmadeva.

Aph. 21.

Through devotion to something under a super-induced form, [attainment to, or approach towards, knowledge takes place] by degrees; as in the case of those who devote themselves to sacrifices.

Aph. 22.

Moreover, after the attainment of what [like the world of Brahma,] is other [than the state of emancipated soul], there is return [to mundane existence]; because it is written [in the 5th Prapāṭhaka of the Chāṇḍogya Upanishad]: ‘From conjunction with the five fires there is birth,’ &c.

Aph. 23.

By him who is free from passion what is to be left is left, and what is to be taken is taken; as in the case of the swan and the milk.

Aph. 24.

Or through association with one who has obtained excellence; as in the case thereof.

Aph. 25.

Not of his own accord should he go near one who is infected with desire; like the parrot.

Aph. 26.

[Else, he may become] bound, by conjunction with the cords; as in the case of the parrot.

Aph. 27.

Not by enjoyment is desire appeased; as in the case of the saint.

Aph. 28.

From seeing the fault of both.

Aph. 29.

Not in the case of him whose mind is disturbed does the seed of instruction sprout; as in the case of Aja.

Aph. 30.

Not even a mere semblance [of this true knowledge arises in him whose mind is disturbed]; as in the case of a foul mirror.

Aph. 31.

Nor, even though sprung therefrom, is that [knowledge, necessarily,] in accordance therewith; like the lotus.

Aph. 32.

Not even on the attainment of glorification has that been done which was to be done; as is the case with the perfection of the objects worshipped, as is the case with the perfection of the objects worshipped.