Classic Vedic & Hindu texts

Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad

Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad forms the concluding portion of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa of the Śukla (White) Yajur Veda. The literal meaning of the term Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad is the “Great Forest Upanishad.” Śankarāchārya, in the Introduction to his commen­tary, says that this Upanishad, consisting of six parts, is called “Great” (Brihat) because of its length and profundity, and “Forest” (Āraṇyaka) because of its having been taught in a...

Chhāṇdogya Upanishad | English Classic

The Sāma Veda includes among its treasures the Chhāṇdogya Brāhmaṇa, consisting of ten parts; of these, the last eight constitute the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad. In turn, the eight parts of the Upanishad may be broadly divided into two sections. The first, consisting of five parts, deals with upāsanā, or ritualistic worship with emphasis on meditation. The second section, of three parts, discusses certain fundamental doctrines of...

Taittirīya Upanishad

The Taittirīya Upanishad has been so named because it forms a part of the Taittirīya Āraṇyaka of the Krishna Yajur Veda. The special feature of the Taittirīya Upanishad is in the grand proclamation that Brahman is Ānandamaya or Supreme Bliss. Wherever there is the bliss or joy, it is a reflection of the light of Brahman. The Vedāntic doctrine of three bodies i.e., causal, subtle...

Prashna Upanishad

Praśna Upanishad has derived its name from the Six Questions it contains and it belongs to the Atharva Veda. There are six chapters in the Praśna Upanishad and each begins with a question. The first question refers to the origin of the created beings, the second to the constituents of the human personality, the third to the nature and origin of Prāṇa, the fourth is...

Aitareya Upanishad

Aitareya Upanishad is contained in the Ṛig Veda and forms a part of the Aitareya Āraṇyaka. The Aitareya Upanishad is a short prose text, divided into three chapters, containing 33 verses. It comprises the fourth, fifth and sixth chapters of the second book of the older Vedic text, Aitareya Āraṇyaka. It is one of the oldest and so called Classical 11 Upanishads.

Mundaka Upanishad

Muṇḍaka literally means a razor, or one with shaven head, i.e., a Sannyāsin. The Upanishad is so called probably for two reasons; first, because it cleanses the soul by destroying all its super-imposed ignorance, even as a razor shaves the head; secondly, because it strongly advocates the Sannyāsa life in preference to the house-holder’s. It belongs to the group of Upanishads attached to the Atharva...

Isha Upanishad | Isopanisad

Īśa Upanishad derives its title from the opening words “Īśa- Vāsya, “God-covered.” The use of Īśa (Lord)—a more personal name of the Supreme Being than Brahman, Ātman or Self, the names usually found in the Upanishads - constitutes one of its peculiarities. It forms the closing chapter of the Yajur-Veda, known as Śuklā (White). The Īśa-Vāsya Upanishad is that which gives Brahma-Vidyā or knowledge of...

Mandukya Upanishad

The Māṇḍūkya Upanishad is so named, probably after its seer Rishi Mundaka. It belongs to the Atharva Veda group of Upanishads. In a short compass of only 12 mantrams, Māṇḍūkya Upanishad speaks of the entire range of human consciousness, beginning from the awakened state and ending in the Supreme Absolute state of super-consciousness where all objective relations and perceptions of duality are completely negated.

Kena Upanishad - english-sanskrit

This Upanishad is called Kena Upanishad , because it begins with the inquiry: “By whom” (Kena) willed or directed does the mind go towards its object? From whom comes life? What enables man to speak, to hear and see? And the teacher in reply gives him the defi­nition of Brahman, the Source and Basis of existence. The spirit of the Upanishads is always to show...

Katha Upanishad

Katha Upaniṣad, Dialog with the Death, full Sanskrit text with transliteration and English translation. Katha Upanishad represents an ancient conversation between an ancient sage Nachikētas and Yama, the lord of kingdom of Death.