Category:

Chhāṇdogya Upanishad | Part II

Part 2

The first part describes the meditation on certain portions of the Sāman, or the Soma-sacrifice. The second part describes the meditation on the whole Sāman. One of the purposes of upāsanā is to train the mind to conceive a thing as a whole instead of thinking of it part by part.

The first verse of chapter twenty-three explains the four stages of life. Those seekers belonging to the first three stages meditate on Om as forming a part of the Sāman sacrifice and attain after death relative immortality in heaven. But a monk, who belongs to the fourth stage, meditates on Om independent of rituals and as a symbol of Brahman and, as a result, attains absolute Immortality through the Knowledge of Brahman. Om is described as the essence of all things.


Part 2 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24


Chapter 1

Meditation on the Fivefold Sāman (I)

1

OM. Meditation on the whole of the Sāman is good.
Whatever is good, people say it is Sāman;
and whatever is not good, people say it is not Sāman.

2

Thus people say: “He approached him with Sāman,”
that is to say, “He approached him in a becoming manner.”
Again they say: “He approached him without Sāman,”
that is to say, “He approached him in an unbecoming manner.”

3

And they also say: “Truly this is Sāman for us,”
that is to say, “It is good for us,” when it is good.
Again, they say: “Truly this is not Sāman for us,”
that is to say, “It is not good for us,” when it is not good.

4

He who, knowing this, meditates on the Sāman as good—
all good qualities will approach him quickly, ay, they will accrue to him.

Here ends Chapter 1 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 2

Meditation On the Fivefold Sāman (II)

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman as the [five] worlds.
The syllable him (र्हिं) is the earth, the Prastāva fire,
the Udgītha the sky, the Pratihāra the sun, the Nidhana heaven.
This is with reference to the ascending order.

2

Now with reference to the descending order:

The syllable him (र्हिं) is heaven, the Prastāva the sun,
the Udgītha the sky, the Pratihāra fire, the Nidhana the earth.

3

The worlds in the ascending and descending orders belong to him
who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman as the worlds.

Here ends Chapter 2 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 3

Meditation on the Fivefold Sāman as Rain

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman as rain.
The syllable Him is the wind that blows from the east,
the Prastāva is the cloud that forms,
the Udgītha is what rains,
the Pratihāra is the lightning and the thunder.

2

The Nidhana is the cessation:

It rains for him [whenever he desires]
and he brings rain for others [even when there is no rain]
who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman as rain.

Here ends Chapter 3 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 4

Meditation on the Fivefold Sāman as Water.

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman in all the waters:

When the clouds gather, that is the syllable Him;
when it rains, that is the Prastāva;
[the rivers] which flow to the east, these are the Udgītha;
[the rivers] which flow to the west, these are the Pratihāra;
the ocean is Nidhana.

2

He does not die in water and he becomes rich in water
who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman in all the waters.

Here ends Chapter 4 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 5

Meditation on the Fivefold Sāman as the Seasons.

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman as the seasons.
The syllable Him is the spring, the Prastāva the summer,
the Udgītha the rainy season, the Pratihāra the autumn,
the Nidhana the winter.

2

The seasons belong to him and he becomes rich in seasons
who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman as the seasons.

Here ends Chapter 5 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 6

Meditation on the Fivefold Sāman in Animals.

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman in animals:

The syllable Him is goats, the Prastāva sheep,
the Udgītha cows, the Pratihāra horses, the Nidhana man.

2

Animals belong to him [as objects of enjoyment]
and he becomes rich in animals
who, knowing this, meditates
on the fivefold Sāman in animals.

Here ends Chapter 6 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 7

Meditation on the Fivefold Sāman in the Senses.

1

One should meditate on the fivefold Sāman,
which is the most excellent, as the ākāśas (senses):

The syllable Him is smell (i.e. the nose),
the Prastāva speech (the tongue),
the Udgītha sight (the eye),
the Pratihāra hearing (the ear),
the Nidhana the mind.

These are each greater than the preceding.

2

The most excellent [objects] belong to him,
nay, he conquers the most excellent worlds
who, knowing this, meditates on the fivefold Sāman,
which is the most excellent, as the senses.

Here ends Chapter 7 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 8

Meditation on the Sevenfold Sāman in Speech

1

Now for the sevenfold Sāman:
One should meditate on the sevenfold Sāman in speech.
Whenever there is the syllable Hum in speech, that is the syllable Him;
[likewise] Pra is the Prastāva, Ā is the Ādi.

2

Ud is the Udgītha, Pra the Pratihāra,
Upa the Upadrava, Ni the Nidhana.

3

For him speech yields milk, which is the milk of speech,
and he becomes rich in food and the eater of food
who, knowing this, meditates on the sevenfold Sāman in speech.

Here ends Chapter 8 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 9

Meditation on the Sevenfold Sāman as the Sun

1

One should meditate on the sevenfold Sāman as yonder sun.
The sun is the Sāman because he is always the same (Sāma).
He is the Sāman because he makes everyone cherish the same thought:
“He faces me,” “He faces me.”

2

One should know that all beings depend upon him (i.e. the sun).
What he is before his rising is the syllable Him.
The animals depend upon it (i.e. Him).
Therefore the animals say “Him” [before the sunrise],
for they partake of the syllable Him of the Sāman (sun).

3

What he (the sun) is just after he has risen,
that is the Prastāva. Men depend upon it.
Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and eulogy,
for they partake of the Prastāva of that Sāman.

4

What he is when the rays go forth, that is the Ādi. Birds depend upon it.
Therefore birds hold themselves without support in the sky and fly about,
for they partake of the Ādi of that Sāman.

5

What he is just at midday, that is the Udgītha.
The devas (gods) are dependent upon it.
Therefore they are the best of the offspring of Prajāpati,
for they partake of the Udgītha of that Sāman.

6

What he is after midday and before afternoon, that is the Pratihāra.
The foetuses depend upon it.
Therefore they are held in the womb [after being conceived] and do not fall,
for they partake of the Pratihāra of the Sāman.

7

What he is after the afternoon and before sunset, that is the Upadrava.
The animals of the forest depend upon it.
Therefore they run to the forest and their caves when they see a man,
for they partake of the Upadrava of that Sāman.

8

What he is just after the sunset, that is the Nidhana.
The Manes depend upon it.
Therefore they put them (i.e. the Manes) down,
for they partake of the Nidhana of that Sāman.
Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Sāman as the sun.

Here ends Chapter 9 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 10

Meditation On The Sevenfold Sāman Through The Number Of Syllables.

1

Next One should meditate on the sevenfold Sāman
which has a uniform number of syllables and which leads beyond death:
The word Himkāra has three syllables, the word Prastāva has three syllables.
Hence they are equal (Sāma).

2

The word Ādi has two syllables,
and the word Pratihāra has four syllables.
[If we take] one [syllable] from here (i.e. from Pratihāra)
and join it [to Ādi],
they become equal (Sāma).

3-4

The word Udgītha has three syllables,
and the word Upadrava has four syllables.
With three and three syllables they should be equal.
One syllable being left out, it becomes tri-syllabic.
Hence the equality (Sāma).
The word Nidhana has three syllables; therefore it is equal.
These make twenty-two syllables [of the sevenfold Sāman].

5

With twenty-one syllables he reaches the sun;
for the sun is the twenty-first from here.
With the twenty-second he conquers what is beyond the sun;
that [plane] is blessed and free from grief.

6

He obtains here victory over the sun (death);
and to him comes a victory higher than the victory over the sun
who, knowing this, meditates on the sevenfold Sāman
which has a uniform number of syllables, and which leads beyond death,
yea, who meditates upon the [sevenfold] Sāman.

Here ends Chapter 10 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 11

Meditation on the Gāyatra Sāman.

1

The syllable Him is the mind, the Prastāva speech,
the Udgītha sight, the Pratihāra hearing, the Nidhana breath (the ākāśa).
This is the Gāyatra Sāman, as interwoven in the [five] ākāśas.

2

He who thus knows
this Gāyatra Sāman interwoven in the ākāśas
preserves his sense-organs intact,
reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him [who meditates on the Gāyatra Sāman]
the injunction is: “Be high- minded.”

Here ends Chapter 11 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 12

Meditation On The Rathantara Sāman

1

The rubbing [of the fire-sticks] is the syllable Him;
the rising of the smoke is the Prastāva;
the burning is the Udgītha;
the forming of embers is the Pratihāra;
the going out is the Nidhana.
This is the Rāthāntara Sāman as interwoven in fire.

2

He who thus knows
this Rāthāntara Sāman as interwoven in fire
becomes radiant with the light of Brahman
and endowed with a good appetite;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is:
“Do not sip water or spit before the fire.”

Here ends Chapter 12 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 13

Meditation On The Vamadevya Sāman

1

A man’s beckoning [to a woman] is the syllable Him;
his gratifying [her] is the Prastāva;
his lying with her is the Pratihāra;
his spending time [with her] is the Nidhana;
and the finishing [of the sexual act] is also the Nidhana.

This is the Vāmadevya Sāman as interwoven in sexual intercourse.

2

He who thus knows
the Vāmadevya Sāman as interwoven in sexual intercourse
does not suffer from the pang of separation,
and procreates from every intercourse;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is:
“Do not reject a woman [who comes to you seeking intercourse]”

Here ends Chapter 13 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 14

Meditation on the Brihat Sāman

1

The rising of the sun is the syllable Him;
the risen sun is the Prastāva; the midday sun is the Udgītha;
the afternoon sun is the Pratihāra; the setting sun is the Nidhana.

This is the Brihat Sāman as interwoven in the sun.

2

He who thus knows
the Brihat Sāman as interwoven in the sun
becomes radiant and endowed with a good appetite;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the burning sun.”

Here ends Chapter 14 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 15

Meditation on the Vairupa Sāman

1

The gathering of the mists is the syllable Him;
the forming of clouds is the Prastāva;
the raining is the Udgītha;
the flashing and thundering are the Pratihāra;
the ceasing of the rain is the Nidhana.

This is the Vairupa Sāman as interwoven in the clouds.

2

He who thus knows
the Vairupa Sāman as interwoven in the clouds
obtains cattle of various forms and of beautiful form;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is: ‘'Do not decry the rain.”

Here ends Chapter 15 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 16

Meditation On The Vairaja Sāman

1

The syllable Him is the spring, the Prastāva the summer,
the Udgītha the rainy season, the Pratihāra the autumn,
the Nidhana the winter.

This is the Vairāja Sāman as interwoven in the seasons.

2

He who thus knows
the Vairāja Sāman as interwoven in the seasons
shines through children, cattle, and the light of Brahman;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.
For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the seasons.”

Here ends Chapter 16 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 17

Meditation On The Sakvari Sāman

1

The syllable Him is the earth, the Prastāva the sky,
the Udgītha heaven, the Pratihāra the quarters, the Nidhana the sea.

This is the Sakvari Sāman as interwoven in the worlds.

2

He who thus knows
the Sakvari Sāman as interwoven in the worlds
becomes the possessor of the worlds;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the worlds.”

Here ends Chapter 17 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 18

Meditation on the Revati Sāman

1

The syllable Him is goats, the Prastāva sheep,
the Udgītha cows, the Pratihāra horses, the Nidhana man.

This is the Revati Sāman as interwoven in animals.

2

He who thus knows
these Revati Sāmans as interwoven in animals
becomes the possessor of animals;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is: “Do not decry animals.”

Here ends Chapter 18 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 19

Meditation On The Yajnāyajniya Sāman

1

The syllable Him is hair, the Prastāva skin,
the Udgītha flesh, the Pratihāra bone, the Nidhana marrow.

This is the Yajnāyajniya Sāman as interwoven in the members of the body.

2

He who thus knows the Yajnāyajniya Sāman
as interwoven in the members of the body
becomes possessed of limbs; he is not crippled in any limb,
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is:
“For one year do not eat meat” or “Do not eat meat at all.”

Here ends Chapter 19 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 20

Meditation On The Rājana Sāman

1

The syllable Him is fire, the Prastāva air,
the Udgītha the sun, the Pratihāra the stars, the Nidhana the moon.

This is the Rājana Sāman as interwoven in the gods.

2

He who thus knows
the Rājana Sāman as interwoven in the gods
obtains the same world as the gods,
acquires the same prosperity as theirs and realizes union with them;
he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly,
becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame.

For him the injunction is: “Do not decry the Brahmins.”

Here ends Chapter 20 of Part Two of the Chhāndogya Upanishad.

Chapter 21

Meditation on the Sāman as Interwoven In Everything

1

The syllable Him is the three Vedas;
the Prastāva is these three worlds;
the Udgītha is fire (Agni), air (Vāyu), and the sun (Āditya);
the Pratihāra is the stars, the birds, and the rays;
the Nidhana is the serpents, the gandharvas, and the Manes.

This is the Sāman as inter-woven in everything.

2

He who thus knows
this Sāman as interwoven in everything
becomes everything.

3

On this there is the following verse:
“There are the fivefold three.
Greater than these or besides these there is nothing,”

4

He who knows this, knows everything.
All regions bring him gifts.
For him the injunction is:
“Let him meditate on the Sāman,
knowing that he is everything”
—yea, this is the injunction for him.

Here ends Chapter 21 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 22

The Different Notes Employed In The Chanting Of The Sāman

1

[An Udgātri priest thinks thus:]

“I choose the deep-sounding note of the Sāman,
which is good for the cattle and which belongs to fire (Agni).

The undefined note belongs to Prajāpati,
the defined note to Soma (the moon),
the soft and smooth note to Vāyu (the air),
the smooth and strong note to Indra,
the heron-like note to Brihaspati,
and the dull note to Varuṇa.”

Let a man cultivate all these, avoiding, however, the note of Varuṇa.

2

A man should sing, wishing that by his song
he may secure immortality for the gods:
“May I obtain by my song oblations (svadhā) for the Manes,
hope for men, grass and water for cattle,
heaven for the sacrificer, and food for myself.”

Thus reflecting on all these in his mind,
he (the Udgātri priest) should chant the praises
without making mistakes [in pronunciation etc.].

3

All vowels belong to the different parts of Indra’s body,
all sibilants to Prajāpati, all consonants to Mrityu (death).

If someone should reprove him
(i.e. the Udgātri priest who knows this)
regarding [the pronunciation of] vowels,
let him say:

“I went to Indra for my refuge [when pronouncing my vowels].
He will answer you.”

4

And if someone should reprove him for his sibilants, let him say:
“I went to Prajāpati for my refuge. He will smash you.”
And if someone should reprove him for his consonants, let him say:
“I went to Mrityu for my refuge. He will burn you to ashes.”

5

All vowels should be pronounced with resonance and strength
[and with the thought on the part of the singer]:
“May I impart strength to Indra (the ākāśa).”

All the sibilants should be pronounced full
—without being swallowed or thrown out
[and with the thought]:
“May I give myself to Prajāpati.”

All consonants should be pronounced slowly
and without mixing them with the others
[and with the thought]:
“May I withdraw myself from death.”

Here ends Chapter 22 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 23

Praise Of Om Unassociated With Any Ritual

1

There are three divisions of dharma:
Sacrifice, study, and charity form the first.
Austerity is the second.
Dwelling in the house of the teacher as a brahmachārī,
always mortifying the body in the house of the teacher, is the third.

All those [who practise these dharmas] attain the worlds of the virtuous.
But one who is established in Brahman obtains Immortality.

2

Prajāpati brooded on the worlds.
From them, thus brooded upon,
there was revealed [in His heart]
the threefold knowledge.

He brooded on it, and from it,
thus brooded upon, there issued forth these syllables:
Bhuḥ, Bhuvah, and Svaḥ.

3

He brooded on them (the three syllables), and from them,
thus brooded upon, there issued forth Om.

As all leaves are held together by a midrib,
so is all speech held together by Om (Brahman).
Om is all this, yea, Om is all this.

Here ends Chapter 23 of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 24

The Different Planes Attained By The Sacrificer

1-2

The expounders of Brahman (i.e. the Vedas) ask:

“Since the morning oblation belongs to the Vāsus,
the midday oblation to the Rudras,
and the third (i.e. evening) oblation to the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas,
Where, then, is the world of the sacrificer?”

He who does not know this, how can he perform the sacrifice?
Only he who knows should perform it.

3-4

Before beginning the morning chant,
the sacrificer, sitting behind the Gārhapatya Fire and facing the north,
sings the Sāman addressed to the Vāsus:

“O Fire! Open the door of the earth-world.
Let us see thee, that we may rule [this earth].”

5-6

Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus:

“Adoration to Agni, who dwells in the earth-world!
Secure this world for me, the sacrificer.
That is the world for the sacrificer.
“I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svāhā!”

[Afterwards the sacrificer chants:]
“Cast away the bolt [of the earth- world].”
Having said this, he rises.
To him the Vāsus offer the world
connected with the morning oblation.

7-8

Before beginning the midday oblation,
the sacrificer, sitting behind the Dakshiṇā Fire and facing the north,
sings the Sāman addressed to the Rudras:

“O Fire! Open the door of the sky-world.
Let us see thee, that we may rule wide [in die sky-world].”

9-10

Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus:

“Adoration to Vāyu, who dwells in the sky-world!
Secure this world for me, the sacrificer.
That is the world for the sacrificer.
“I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svāhā!”

[Afterwards the sacrificer chants:]
“Cast away the bolt [of the sky- world],”
Having said this, he rises.
To him the Rudras offer the world
connected with the midday oblation.

11-13

Before beginning the third (i.e. evening) oblation,
the sacrificer, sitting behind the Āhavaṇiya Fire and facing the north,
sings the [two] Sāmans addressed to the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas:

“O Fire! Open the door of the heaven-world.
Let us see thee, that we may rule supreme [in heaven].”
This is addressed to the Ādityas.

Next the Sāman addressed to the Viśve-devas:

“O Fire! Open the door of the heaven-world.
Let us see thee, that we may rule supreme [in heaven].”

14-15

Then the sacrificer offers an oblation, reciting thus:

“Adoration to the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas,
who dwell in the heaven-world!
Secure this world for me, the sacrificer.
That is the world for the sacrificer.
“I, the sacrificer, will go thither when this life is over. Svāhā!”

[Afterwards the sacrificer chants:]
“Cast away the bolt [of the heaven-world].”
Having said this, he rises.

16

To him the Ādityas and the Viśve-devas offer the world
connected with the third oblation.

He (the sacrificer) who knows this
knows the full measure of the sacrifice,
yea, he knows it.

Here ends Chapter 24
of Part Two of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.