Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad | Part VI

Part Six

The sixth part of the Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad contains five chapters.

The aim of the first chapter, which consists of fourteen verses, is to demonstrate the superiority of the Prāṇa, or vital breath. It is the Prāṇa that preserves the embryo before the sense-organs begin to function. Later, after they have developed, it enables them to function.

The second chapter, consisting of sixteen verses, describes the ways followed by the soul after a persons death, the various stages through which the soul passes before it is reincarnated in a human body, and other similar matters. There are two ways: the Way of the Gods (devayāna) and the Way of the Manes (pitṛyāna).


Part VI

Chapter I , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Chapter II , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chapter III , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Chapter IV , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Chapter V , verse ... 1 2 3 4

Next ... Part 1 ... Part 2 ... Part 3 ... Part 4 ... Part 5 ... Part 6


Chapter I
THE SUPREMACY OF THE PRĀṆA

1

OM. He who knows what is the oldest and greatest
becomes the oldest and greatest among his kinsmen.

The vital breath (Prāṇa) is indeed the oldest and greatest.
He who knows this becomes the oldest and greatest among his kinsmen
and also among those of whom he wishes to be so.

2

He who knows what is the most excellent (vāsishṭha)
becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen.

The organ of speech is indeed the vāsishṭha.
He who knows this becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen
and also among those of whom he wishes to be so.

3

He who knows what has [the attribute of] steadiness (pratisṭhā)
lives steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times.
The eye indeed is endowed with steadiness, for with the help of the eye
one remains steady in rough as well as smooth places and times.
He who knows this lives steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times.

4

He who knows prosperity (sampad) attains whatever object he desires.
The ear indeed is prosperity, for when the ear is intact all the Vedas are acquired.
He who knows this attains whatever object he desires.

5

He who knows the abode (āyatana)
becomes the abode of his kinsmen and also of [other] people.
The mind indeed is the abode.
He who knows this becomes the abode of his kinsmen as well as of [other] people.

6

He who knows [what has the attribute of] procreation (prajāti)
is enriched with children and animals.
Semen verily has this attribute.
He who knows this is enriched with children and animals.

7

These organs, disputing about who was superior among them,
went to Prajāpati and asked: “Which one among us is the most excellent (vasishtha)?”

He said: “That one among you is the most excellent
by whose departure this body is considered to suffer most.”

8

The organ of speech departed.

After being absent for a whole year it came back and said:

“How have you been able to live without me?”

The other organs said: “We lived just as dumb people live,
without speaking through the tongue, but living through the vital breath,
seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind,
and procreating through the organ of generation.”

Then the organ of speech entered [the body].

9

The eye departed.

After being absent for a whole year it came back and said:

“How have you been able to live without me?”

The other organs said: “We lived just as blind people live,
without seeing through the eye, but living through the vital breath,
speaking through the organ of speech, hearing through the ear,
knowing through the mind, and procreating through the organ of generation.”

Then the eye entered [the body].

10

The ear went out.

After being absent for a whole year it came bade and said:

“How have you been able to live without me?”

The other organs said: “We lived just as deaf people live,
without hearing through the ear, but living through the vital breath,
speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye,
knowing through the mind, and procreating through the organ of generation.”

Then the ear entered [the body].

11

The mind went out.

After being absent for a whole year it came back and said:

“How have you been able to live without me?”

The other organs said: We lived just as idiots live,
without knowing through the mind, but living through the vital breath,
speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye,
hearing through the ear, and procreating through the organ of generation.”

Then the mind entered [the body].

12

Then the organ of generation went out.

After being absent for a whole year it came back and said:

“How have you been able to live without me?”

The other organs said: “We lived just as impotent people live,
without procreating children through the organ of generation,
but living through the vital breath, speaking through the organ of speech,
seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear, and knowing through the mind.”

Then the organ of generation entered [the body].

13

Then as the vital breath was about to depart, it uprooted the organs [from their places]
just as a great, noble horse of the Sindhu country tears up the pegs to which his feet are tied.

They said: “Venerable Sir, please do not go out. We shall not be able to live without you.”
If I am such, then give me an offering.”
So be it.”

14

The organ of speech said:
“That attribute of being most excellent which I possess is yours.”
The eye said: “That attribute of steadiness which I possess is yours.”
The ear said: “That attribute of prosperity which I possess is yours.”
The mind said: “That attribute of being an abode which I possess is yours.”
The organ of generation said: “That attribute of procreation which I possess is yours.”

Then the vital breath said:
“If I am such, then what will be my food and what will be my dress?”

They replied: “Whatever food there is—
including that of dogs, worms, insects, and moths—will be your food,
and water will be your dress.”

He who knows the food of the vital breath to be such
never happens to eat anything or accept anything that is not food.

Wise men who are versed in the Vedas therefore
take a sip of water just before and after eating;
they think that thereby they remove the nakedness of the vital breath.

Chapter II
THE PROCESS OF REBIRTH

1

Śvetaketu, the grandson of Aruṇa, came to the assembly of the Pañcālas.
He approached Pravāhaṇa, the son of Jivala, who was being waited upon by his courtiers.

As soon as the king saw him, he said: “Is it you, boy?”
He replied: “Yes, Sir.”
Then the king asked: “Have you been taught by your father?”
Yes,” he replied.

2

The king said: “Do you know how people,
after departing [from this life], proceed on different paths?”
”No,” he replied.

Do you know how they return to this world?”
“No,” he replied.

“Do you know why the other world is never filled up
[even though] so many people go there again and again?”
No,” he replied.

Do you know after how many offerings of oblations the water
(the liquid oblation) becomes endowed with a human voice, rises up, and speaks?”
No,” he replied.

Do you know the means of access
to the path leading to the gods or to that leading to the Manes,
that is to say,
through what deeds men attain the path leading to the gods or that leading to the Manes?

We have heard the following words of the Mantra:
‘I have heard of the two paths for men, one leading to the Manes and the other to the gods.
Going along them they (departed souls) are united [with their destination].
They (the paths) lie between the father (heaven) and the mother (earth).’”

Śvetaketu said: “I do not know even one of these.”

3

Then the king invited him to stay.
But the boy, disregarding the invitation, hurried away.

He went to his father and said:
“Did you not tell me before that you had fully instructed me?”
What then, my intelligent child?”
That fellow of a kshatriya asked me five questions, and I did not know one of them.”
What were they?”
These,” said Śvetaketu, and he recited them.

4

The father said: “My child, believe me, whatever I myself knew, I told you.
But come, let us go there and live as religious students (brahmacharins).”
“You may go, Sir,” the son replied.

Then Gautama went to where King Pravāhaṇa, the son of Jivala, was giving audience.
The king offered him a seat, ordered water for him, and made him the reverential offering.

Then he said: “Revered Gautama, we will give you a boon.”

5

Gautama said: “You have promised me this boon.
Now please tell me what you spoke about to my boy.”

6

The king said: “Ah, those are divine boons, Gautama. Please ask a human boon.”

7

Gautama said:
“You know well that I have gold, cows, horses, maidservants, retinue, and apparel.
Please do not be ungenerous towards me in regard to that gift
which is plentiful, infinite, and inexhaustible.”

The king said: “Then, verily, O Gautama, you should ask it in the prescribed way.”

Gautama replied: “I approach you as a disciple.”

The ancients used to approach a teacher through mere declaration.
So Gautama lived [with the king] by merely announcing that he was a student.

8

The king said: “Please do not be offended with us
even as your paternal grandfather was not [offended with ours].
Before now this knowledge never rested with a Brāhmin.
But I shall teach it to you, for who can refuse you when you speak like this?

9

Yonder world is the [sacrificial] fire, the sun is its fuel, the rays its smoke,
the day its flame, the four quarters its cinders, and the intermediate quarters its sparks.
In this fire the gods offer faith as libation.
Out of that offering King Moon is born.

10

Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is the fire, the year is its fuel,
the clouds its smoke, lightning its flame, the thunderbolt its cinders, the rumbling its sparks.
In this fire the gods offer King Moon as libation.
Out of that offering rain is produced.

11

This world, O Gautama, is the fire, the earth is its fuel, fire its smoke,
the night its flame, the moon its cinders, the stars its sparks.
In this fire the gods offer rain as libation.
 Out of that offering food is produced.

12

Man, O Gautama, is the fire, the open mouth is its fuel, the vital breath its smoke,
speech its flame, the eye its cinders, and the ear its sparks.
In this fire the gods offer food as libation.
Out of that offering semen is produced.

13

Woman, O Gautama, is the fire, her sexual organ is the fuel, the hairs the smoke,

the vulva the flame, sexual intercourse the cinders, enjoyment the sparks.
In this fire the gods offer semen as libation.
Out of this offering a man is born. He lives as long as he is to live. Then, when he dies,

14

They carry him to be offered in the fire.

The fire becomes his fire, the fuel his fuel, the smoke his smoke,
the flame his flame, the cinders his cinders, and the sparks his sparks.
In this fire the gods offer the man as libation.
Out of this offering the man emerges in radiant splendour.

15

Those [even among] householders who know this, as described, and those too
who, living in the forest, meditate with faith upon the Satya Brahman (Hiraṇyagarbha),
reach [the deity identified with] flame, from him [the deity of] the day,
from him [the deity of] the fortnight in which the moon waxes,
from him [the deities of the] six months during which the sun travels northward,
from them [the deity identified with] the world of the gods (devaloka),
from him the sun, from the sun [the deity of] lightning.

[Then] a being created from the mind [of Hiraṇyagarbha] comes
and leads them to the worlds of Brahma.

In those worlds of Brahma they become exalted and live for many years.
They no more return to this world.

16

But those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices, charity, and austerity
reach [the deity of] smoke, from smoke, [the deity of] the night,
from night [the deity of] the fortnight in which the moon wanes,
from the decreasing half of the moon [the deities of] the six months
during which the sun travels southward,
from these months [the deity of] the world of the Manes,
and from the world of the Manes, the moon.

Reaching the moon they become food.
There the gods enjoy them,
just as [here] the priests drink the shining soma juice-
saying [as it were]: “Flourish, dwindle.”

And when their past work is exhausted they reach this very ākāśa,
from the ākāśa they reach the air, from the air rain, from rain the earth.
Reaching the earth they become food.
Then they are again offered in the fire of man, and thence in the fire of woman.
Out of the fire of woman they are born [and perform rites]
with a view to going to other worlds.

Thus do they rotate.

“Those, however, who do not know these two ways become insects and moths,
and those creatures which often bite (i.e. mosquitoes and gnats).”

Chapter III
RITES FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF WEALTH

1

Whoever wishes to attain greatness (i.e. wealth for performing sacrificial rites) should act as follows:

On an auspicious day of the fortnight in which the moon waxes,
under a constellation bearing a masculine name,
during the northward journey of the sun,
he should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads,
gather in a cup or a bowl made of fig wood all the herbs and their grains,
sweep and plaster the ground, lay the fire, spread [the Kuśa grass],
purify the offering (clarified butter) according to the rules,
place [between himself and the fire] the mantha (the paste made of those herbs etc.),
and offer oblations with the following mantras:

O Fire, to all those gods under you who spitefully slay men’s desires, I offer their share.
May they be satisfied and satisfy me with all the objects of my desire! Svāhā!

To that deity who turns out to be spiteful under your protection,
thinking that she is the support of all,
I offer this stream of clarified butter. Svāhā!”

2

Svāhā to the oldest, svāhā to the greatest!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

Svāhā to the vital breath (Prāṇa), svāhā to the vāsishṭha (the most excellent)!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

Svāhā to the organ of speech, svāhā to that which has steadiness!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

Svāhā to the eye, svāhā to prosperity!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

Svāhā to the ear, svāhā to the abode!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

Svāhā to the mind, svāhā to procreation (prajati)!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

Svāhā to the organ of generation!”—
[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

3

Svāhā to fire”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the moon”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the earth”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the sky”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to heaven”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to earth, sky, and heaven”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the brāhmin”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the kshatriya”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip in to the paste.
Svāhā to the past”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the future”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to the universe”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to all”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.
Svāhā to Prajāpati”—[uttering these words,] he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.

4

Then he touches the paste, uttering [the mantra]:

“You move [as the vital breath]; you burn [as fire];
you are infinite [as Brahman]; you are unshaken [as the sky].
You are the meeting-place [of all].
You are the sound Hiṁ and are uttered as Hiṁ [in the sacrifice by the prastotri].
You are the Udgītha and are chanted [by the udgātri].
You are recited [by the adbvaryu] and recited back [by the agnidhra].
You are fully ablaze in the moist cloud. You are omnipresent and the ruler.
You are food [as the moon] and light [as fire].
You are death and you are that in which all things merge.”

5

Then he raises the paste, saying:
“[As the vital breath] you know all; we too are aware of your greatness [as the vital breath].
The vital breath is the king, the ruler, the sovereign.
May it make me king, ruler, and sovereign.”

6

Then he eats the paste, saying: “’Tat saviturvarenyam’ (‘That adorable light’)—
’The winds blow sweetly (madhu), the rivers pour forth sweetness (madhu);
may the herbs be sweet (madhu) unto us!’
‘Svahā. to the earth (Bhuh).’

‘Bhargo devasya dhimahi’—(‘Of the radiant sun, we meditate upon’)—
’May the nights and days be sweet (madhu), may the dust of the earth be sweet (madhu),
may heaven, our father, be sweet (madhu)!’
‘Svāhā to the sky (Bhuvah).’

‘Dhiyo yo nab prachodayāt’ (‘May He stimulate our intellect’)—
’May the soma creeper be sweet (madhu) unto us, may the sun be sweet (madhu),
may the quarters be filled with sweetness (madhu) for us!’
‘Svāhā to heaven (Svah).’”

Then he repeats the whole Gāyatri and all the verses about sweetness (madhumati),
and says at the end: “May I be all this! Svāhā to earth, sky, and heaven.”

Then he eats all that is left of the paste, washes his hands,
and lies down behind the fire with his head to the east.

In the morning he salutes the sun saying:
“You are the one [non-dual and best] lotus of the quarters;
may I be the one lotus among men.”

Then he returns the way he went, sits behind the fire, and repeats the line of teachers.

7

Uddālaka, the son of Aruṇa, taught this to his pupil Vājasaneya Yājñyavalkya and said:
“Should one pour it (the paste) even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

8

Then Vājasaneya Yājñyavalkya taught this to his pupil Madhuka, the son of Paingi, and said:
“Should one pour it even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

9

Then Madhuka, the son of Paingi, taught this to his pupil Chula, the son of Bhagavitta, and said:
“Should one pour it even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

10

Then Chula, the son of Bhagavitta, taught this to his disciple Jānaki, the son of Ayasthuna, and said:
“Should one pour it even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

11

Then Jānaki, the son of Ayasthuna, taught this to his pupil Satyakāma, the son of Jabālā, and said:
“Should one pour it even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

12

And Satyakāma, the son of Jabālā, taught this to his pupils and said:
“Should one pour it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

One must not teach this to anyone but a son or a pupil.

13

Four articles are made of fig wood:
the sacrificial ladle, the bowl, the fuel, and the two mixing-rods.

The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice, barley, sesamum, beans, millet (anu), panic seeds (priyangu), wheat, lentils, pulse, and vetch.

They should be crushed and soaked in curds, honey, and clarified butter, and offered as an oblation.

Chapter IV
CONCEPTION AND BIRTH AS RELIGIOUS RITES

1

The earth is verily the essence of all these beings,
water is the essence of the earth, herbs of water, flowers of herbs,
fruits of flowers, man of fruits, and semen is the essence of man.

2

Prajāpati said to Himself:
“Well, let Me make a firm basis for it (semen).” So He created woman.
Having created her, He placed her below and worshipped her.
Therefore one should worship a woman, placing her below.
He (Prajāpati) extended His organ that projects and with it impregnated her.

3

Her lap is the [sacrificial] altar, her hair the [sacrificial] grass,
her skin [within the organ] the lighted fire;
the two labia of the vulva are the two stones of the soma-press.

He who, knowing this, practises sexual intercourse
wins as great a world as is won through the Vājapeya sacrifice;
he acquires for himself [the fruit of] the good deeds of the woman.

But he who, without knowing this, practises sexual intercourse
turns over to the woman his own good deeds.

4

Having known this, Uddālaka the son of Aruṇa,
Nāka the son of Mudgala, and Kumāra-hārita said:

“Many mortals, brāhmins only in name,
perform the sexual act without knowledge of what has been said
and depart from this world impotent and without merit.”

Even if this much semen—of one asleep or of one awake—is spilled,

5

He should touch it and repeat the following mantra:

Whatever semen of mine has spilt on earth, whatever has Rowed to plants, whatever to water, I reclaim it.”

With these words he should take the semen with his ring finger and thumb and rub it between his breasts or eyebrows, repeating the following mantra:

Let the semen return to me, let vigour come to me again, let glow and good fortune come to me again. May the deities who dwell in the [sacrificial] fire put the semen back in its proper place.”

6

Now, if a man sees himself (his reflection) in water, he should recite the following mantra:
May the gods bestow on me vigour, manhood, fame, wealth, and merit.”

[In praise of the wife who will bear him a son:]

She (his wife) has put on the soiled clothes [of impurity];
she is, verily, loveliness among women.
Therefore when she has removed the clothes of impurity and appears beautiful,
he should approach her and speak to her.

7

If she does not [willingly] yield [her body] to him, he should buy her [with presents].
If she is still unyielding, he should strike her with a stick or with his hand
and overcome her, repeating the following mantra:

With power and glory I take away your glory.” Thus she becomes discredited.

8

If she grants [his desire], he should repeat the following mantra:

With power and glory I give you glory.”
Thus they both become glorious.

9

If a man desires his wife with the thought: “May she enjoy love with me,”
then, after inserting the member in her, joining mouth to mouth, and stroking her organ,
he should utter the following mantra:

“O semen, you have been produced from my every limb, [especially] from my heart [through the essence of food]; you are the essence of the limbs. Bring this woman under my control, like a deer pierced by a poisoned arrow.”

10

Now, the wife whom he desires [with the thought]: “May she not conceive”—
after inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth,
he should inhale and then exhale, repeating the following mantra:

With power, with semen, I reclaim the semen from you.”

Thus she comes to be without semen.

11

Now, the wife whom he desires [with the thought]: “May she conceive”—
after inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth,
he should inhale and then exhale, repeating the following mantra:

With power, with semen, I deposit semen in you.” Thus she verily becomes pregnant.

12

Now, if a man’s wife has a paramour whom he detests,
[he should perform the following rite in order to cast an evil spell upon him]:

Let him put fire in an unbaked earthen vessel, spread stalks of reed and kusa grass inversely, and offer [in the sacrificial fire] the reed tips, soaked in clarified butter, inversely, repeating the following mantra: “You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your Prāṇa and apāna, you, ———! [Here the name of the evil-doer should be uttered.] You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your sons and cattle, you, ———! You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your Vedic rites and those done according to the Smritis, you, ———! You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your hopes and expectations, you, ———!”

He whom a brāhmin who knows this [rite] curses, departs from this world impotent and shorn of merit.

Therefore let no one even joke with the wife of a Vedic scholar who knows this rite; for he who has this knowledge is a dangerous enemy.

13

If a man’s wife has the monthly sickness, she should for three days drink water from a cup [made of bell metal]. Let no śūdra man or woman touch her. After three nights she should bathe, put on a new cloth, and her husband should make her thresh rice.

14

If a man wishes that a son with a fair complexion should be born to him,

that he should study one Veda, and that he should attain a full term of life,
then they (husband and wife) should have rice cooked in milk
and eat it with clarified butter.

Thus they should be able to beget such a son.

15

If a man wishes that a son with a tawny or brown complexion should be born to him,

that he should study two Vedas, and that he should attain a full term of life,
then they should have rice cooked in curds and eat it with clarified butter.

Thus they should be able to beget such a son.

16

If a man wishes that a son with a dark complexion and red eyes should be born to him,

that he should study three Vedas, and that he should attain a full term of life,
then they should have rice cooked in water and eat it with clarified butter.

Thus they should be able to beget such a son.

17

If a man wishes that a daughter should be born to him
who will be a scholar and attain a full term of life,

then they should have rice cooked with sesame and eat it with clarified butter.

Thus they should be able to beget such a daughter.

18

If a man wishes that a son should be born to him who will be a famous scholar,
frequenting assemblies and speaking delightful words,
a student of all the Vedas, and an enjoyer of the full term of life,

he should have rice cooked with the meat of a young bull
or of one more advanced in years,
and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter.

Then they should be able to beget such a son.

19

Now, towards morning he purifies the clarified butter
according to the rules of Sthālipāka
and offers Sthalipaka oblations repeatedly, saying:

Svāhā to fire! Svāhā to Anumati! Svāhā to the radiant sun, who produces infallible results!”

Having made the offering, he takes up the remnant of the cooked food,
eats part of it, and gives the rest to his wife.

Then he washes his hands, fills the water-vessel,
and sprinkles her thrice with water, uttering [once] this mantra:

Get up from here, O Viśvāvasu! Seek another young woman, a wife with her husband.”

20

Then he embraces her, repeating the following mantra:

I am the vital breath and you are speech. You are speech and I am the vital breath.
I am Sāman and you are Rig; I am heaven and you are earth.
Come, let us strive together so that we may have a male child.”

21

Then he spreads apart her thighs, repeating the following mantra:
“Spread yourselves apart, Heaven and Earth.”

Inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth,
he strokes her three times [from head to foot], repeating the following mantra:

“Let Vishnu make the womb capable of bearing a son!
Let Tvashtrā shape the various limbs [of the child]!
Let Prajāpati pour in [the semen]! Let Dhātrā support the embryo!
O Sinivāli, make her conceive; O goddess [whose glory is widespread], make her conceive!

May the two Aśvins, garlanded with lotuses, support the embryo!

22

”Let the [two] Aśvīns churn the womb with the [two] golden Araṇī sticks!
I am placing a seed in your womb to be delivered in the tenth month.
As the earth has fire in its womb, as heaven is pregnant with the sun,
as the quarters are impregnated by air,
so I am impregnating you by placing this seed in your womb.”

[After the reciting of the mantra, he utters his own name and that of his wife and places the seed.]

23

When she is about to deliver the child,
he sprinkles her with water, repeating the following mantra:

As the wind agitates a pond on every side,
even so let your foetus stir and come out along with the chorion.
Indra (Prāṇa) made a path [when the seed entered the womb].
O Indra, follow that path and come out with the foetus and the covering,
and cause also the after birth to come forth with the babe.”

24

When [the son] is born, he should light a fire, take the child on his lap,
put a mixture of curds and clarified butter in a bell-metal cup,
and offer oblations in the fire repeatedly, uttering the mantra:

May I increase [as the son] in my own home and support a thousand people!
May [the Goddess of Fortune] never depart, with children and cattle, from his line! Svāhā!
The vital breath that is in me, I mentally offer to you. Svāhā!
If I have done anything too much or too little in this ceremony,
may the all-knowing and highly beneficent fire make it just right and proper for me. Svāhā!”

25

Then, putting [his mouth] to the child’s right ear, he should say thrice: “Speech! Speech!”

Next he should mix together curds, honey, and clarified butter
and feed the child with a golden stick which is not placed inside [the mouth],
saying [these mantras]:

I put the earth (Bhuh) into you; I put the sky (Bhuvah) into you; I put heaven (Svah) into you.
The whole of earth, sky, and heaven I put into you.”

26

Then he (the father) gives him (the son) a name:
“You are the Veda (knowledge).“ That is his secret name.

27

Then he presents him to the mother to give him her breast, uttering the mantra:

O Saraswatī, that breast of thine which is fruitful, the sustainer of all,
full of milk, the bestower of wealth, and generous,
and by which thou nourishest all who are worthy-
transfer that [breast] here [to my wife, for my child] to suck.”

28

Then he addresses the mother [of the child] thus:

You are the adorable Arundhati, the wife of Vāsishṭha,
and with me, who am a man, as your partner
you have brought forth a male child.
Be the mother of many male children, for you have given us a son.”

And people say to the son
who is born as the child of a brāhmin endowed with this particular knowledge:

You have surpassed your father and you have surpassed your grandfather.
Oh, truly you have reached the extreme limit of attainment
through your splendour, fame, and brahminical power.”

Chapter V
THE LINE OF TEACHERS

1

Now the line of teachers:

The son of Pautimashi [received this knowledge] from the son of Kātyāyani. The son of Kātyāyani from the son of Gautami.. The son of Gautami from the son of Bhāradvāji. The son of Bhāradvāji from the son of Parāśari.

The son of Pārāśari from the son of Aupasvasti. The son of Aupasvasti from the son of [another] Pārāśari. The son of [this] Pārāśari from the son of Kātyāyani. The son of Kātyāyani from the son of Kauśiki.

The son of Kauśiki from the son of Ālambi and the son of Vaiyāghrapadi. The son of Vaiyāghrapadi from the son of Kānvi and the son of Kāpi. The son of Kāpi

2

From the son of Ātreyi. The son of Ātreyi from the son of Gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bhāradvāji. The son of Bhāradvāji from the son of Pārāśari. The son of Pārāśari from the son of Vātsi.

The son of Vātsi from the son of [another] Pārāśari. The son of [this] Pārāśari from the son of Vārkāruni. The son of Vārkāruni from the son of [another] Vārkāruni. [The] son of [this] Vārkāruni from the son of Ārtabhāgi.

The son of Ārtabhāgi from the son of Śaungi. The son of Śaungi from the son of Sānkriti. The son of Sānkriti from the son of Ālambāyani. The son of Ālambāyani from the son of Ālambi. The son of Ālambi from the son of Jāyanti.

The son of Jāyanti from the son of Māndukāyani. The son of Māndukāyani from the son of Mānduki. The son of Mānduki from the son of Śandili. The son of Śandili from the son of Rāthitari. The son of Rāthitari from the son of Bhāluki.

The son of Bhāluki from the two sons of Kraunchiki. The two sons of Kraunchiki from the son of Vaidabhriti. The son of Vaidabhriti from the son of Kārśakeyi. The son of Kārśakeyi from the son of Prāchinayogi.

The son of Prāchinayogi from the son of Sānjivi. The son of Sānjivi from Āsurivasin, who was the son of Prāśni. The son of Prāśni from Āsurāyana. Āsurāyana from Āsuri. Āsuri

3

From Yājñyavalkya. Yājñyavalkya from Uddālaka. Uddālaka from Aruna. Aruna from Upaveśi. Upaveśi from Kuśri. Kuśri from Vājaśravas. Vājaśravas from Jihvāvat, the son of Badhyoga. Jihvāvat, the son of Badhyoga,

from Asita, the son of Varshagana. Asita, the son of Varshagana, from Harita Kaśyapa. Harita Kaśyapa from Silpa Kaśyapa. Silpa Kaśyapa from Kaśyapa, the son of Nidhruva. Kaśyapa, the son of Nidhruva,

from Vāch. Vāch from Ambhini. Ambhini from the sun. These white Yajuses (sacrificial formulas not vitiated by human blemishes) are explained by Yājñyavalkya, belonging to the Vājasaneyi school.

4

[The line of teachers is] the same up to the son of Sānjivi.

The son of Sānjivi [received this knowledge] from Māndukāyani. Māndukāyani from Māndavya. Māndavya from Kautsa. Kautsa from Māhitthi. Māhitthi from Vāmakakshāyana. Vāmakakshāyana from Śandilya.

Śandilya from Vātsya. Vātsya from Kuśri. Kuśri from Yajnavachas, the son of Rājastamba. Yajnavachas, the son of Rājastamba, from Tura, the son of Kavashi.

Tura, the son of Kavashi, from Prajāpati (Hiraṇyagarbha). Prajāpati [received this knowledge] from his relationship to Brahman (the Vedas).

Brahman is self-existent. Salutation to Brahman.