Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad | Part II

Part Two

The second part of Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad comprises six chapters and contains sixty-six verses. It begins with the dialogue between Gārgya and King Ajātaśatru. Gārgya says to the king that he worships the deities controlling the sun, moon, lightning, etc. as the Supreme Brahman. Ajātaśatru replies that all these deities, being various forms of Hiraṇyagarbha, are Saguṇā Brahman and be­long to the realm of phenomena; they are not the Supreme Brahman.

When a person is satiated with enjoyment in samsāra, the domain of ignorance, he seeks Immortality by means of knowledge leading to Self-Knowledge. One is not qualified for this until one has renounced all worldly possessions. Yājñyavalkya, who is a householder and a ritu­alist, on the eve of his embracing the monastic life teaches Maitreyī the secret of Immortality in the fourth chapter.


Part II

Chapter I , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Chapter II , verse ...  1 2 3 4

Chapter III , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6

Chapter IV , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7-9 10 11 12 13 14

Chapter V , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Chapter VI , verse ...  1 2 3

Next ... Part 3 ... Part 4 ... Part 5 ... Part 6 ... Part 1


Chapter I
RELATIVE ASPECTS OF BRAHMAN

1

OM. There lived of yore a man of the Garga family called proud Bālāki, who was [an eloquent] speaker.
He said to Ajātaśatru, the king of Kāśi: “I will tell you about Brahman.”
Ajātaśatru said: “For this proposal I give you a thousand [cows].
People indeed rush, saying:
Janaka, Janaka.’ [I too have some of his virtues.]”

2

Gārgya said: “That being (puruṣa) who is in the sun, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk to me about him. I meditate upon him as all-surpassing, as the head of all beings, and as resplendent.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes all-surpassing, the head of all beings, and resplendent.

3

Gārgya said: “That being (puruṣa) who is in the moon, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk to me about him. I meditate upon him as the great, white-robed, radiant Soma.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him has, every day, abundant soma pressed for him in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices, and his food never runs short.

4

Gārgya said: “That being (puruṣa) who is in lightning, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as luminous.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes luminous, and his progeny too becomes luminous.

5

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in the ākāśa, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him is filled with progeny and cattle, and his progeny is never extinct from this world.

6

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in the air, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as the Lord (Indra), as irresistible, and as the unvanquished army.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes ever victorious, invincible, and a conqueror of enemies.

7

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in fire, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as forbearing.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes forbearing, and his progeny becomes forbearing.

8

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in water, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as agreeable.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him-to him comes what is agreeable, not what is disagreeable, and to him are born children who are agreeable.

9

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in the mirror, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as shining.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes shining, and his progeny too becomes shining, and he outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.

10

Gārgya said: “The sound that arises behind a man while he walks, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as life.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth, and life does not depart from him before the completion of that time.

11

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in the quarters, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as second and as inseparable.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him gets companions, and his followers never part with him.”

12

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who consists of shadow, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as death.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth, and death does not overtake him before the completion of that time.

13

Gārgya said: “This being (puruṣa) who is in the self, I meditate upon as Brahman.”

Ajātaśatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about him. I meditate upon him as self-possessed.”

Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes self-possessed, and his progeny too becomes self-possessed.

Gārgya remained silent.

14

Ajātaśatru said: “Is this all?”
“That is all.”
“By knowing that much one cannot know Brahman.”
“Let me approach you as a student,” said Gārgya.

15

Ajātaśatru said: “It is contrary to usual practice that a brāhmin should approach a kshatriya, thinking: ‘He will teach me about Brahman.’ Nevertheless, I will instruct you.”

[So saying,] he took Gārgya by the hand and rose. They came to a sleeping man.

[Ajātaśatru] addressed him by these names: Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma.
The man did not get up.
[The king] pushed him again and again with his hand till he awoke. Then he got up.

16

Ajātaśatru said: “When this being full of consciousness (identified with the intellect) was thus asleep, where was it then and whence did it thus come back?”

Gārgya did not know the answer.

17

Ajātaśatru said:

“When this being full of consciousness (vijñāna maya) is thus asleep, it absorbs, at that time, the functions of the organs through its own consciousness and rests in the Supreme Self (ākāśa) that is in the heart.

When this being absorbs them, it is called svapiti. Then the organ of smell is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed.”

18

When the self remains in the dream state, these are its achievements (results of past action):

It then becomes a great king, as it were; or a noble brāhmin, as it were;
or attains, as it were, high or low states.
Even as a great king, taking with him his [retinue of] citizens, moves about,
according to his pleasure, within his own domain,
so does the self, taking with it the organs, move about according to its pleasure, in the body.

19

Next, when the self goes into deep sleep—when it does not know anything—it returns along the seventy-two thousand nerves called hitā, which extend from the heart throughout the whole body, and remains in the body.

As a baby or an emperor or a noble brāhmin lives, having reached the summit of happiness, so does the self rest.

20

As the spider moves along the thread [it produces], or as from a fire tiny sparks fly in all directions, even so from this Ātman come forth all organs, all worlds, all gods, all beings. Its secret name (Upanishad) is “the Truth of truth.” The vital breaths are the truth, and their truth is Ātman.

Chapter II
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRĀṆA

1

He who knows the calf together with its abode, its special resort, its post, and its rope,
kills his seven hostile kinsmen.

The vital breath in the body is indeed the calf; this body is its abode,
the head its special resort, strength its post, and food its rope.

2

These seven gods that prevent decay worship it (the calf):

through these pink lines in the eye, Rudra attends on it;
 through the water in the eye, Parjanya attends on it;
through the pupil of the eye, the sun attends on it;
through the black of the eye, fire attends on it;
through the white portion, Indra; through the lower eyelid, the earth;
and through the upper eyelid, heaven attends on it.

He who knows this—his food does not diminish.

3

Regarding this there is the following mantra:

There is a bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top. Manifold knowledge has been put into it; seven sages sit on its rim, and the organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth.”

What is called the “bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top” is this head [of ours], for it is a bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top.

When it is said: “Manifold knowledge has been put into it,” this refers to the organs; these indeed represent manifold knowledge.

When it is said: “Seven sages sit on its rim,” this refers to the organs; they indeed are the sages.

“The organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth” because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates with the Vedas.

4

These two [ears] are Gotama and Bharadvāja:
this one (the right) is Gotama and this one (the left), Bharadvāja.

These two [eyes] are Viśvāmitra and Jamadagni:
this one (the right) is Viśvāmitra and this one (the left), Jamadagni.

These two [nostrils] are Vaśishtha and Kaśyapa:
this one (the right) is Vaśishtha, and this one (the left), Kaśyapa.

The tongue is Atri, for through the tongue food is eaten. Atri is the same as atti (eating). He who knows this becomes the eater of everything, and everything becomes his food.

Chapter III
THE TWO FORMS OF BRAHMAN

1

Verily, there are two forms of Brahman:
gross and subtle, mortal and immortal, limited and unlimited, definite and indefinite.

2

The gross form is that which is other than air and ākāśa. It is mortal, limited, and definite.

The essence of that which is gross, which is mortal, which is limited, and which is definite is the sun that shines, for it (the sun) is the essence of the three elements.

3

Now the subtle: It is air and ākāśa. It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is indefinite.

The essence of that which is subtle, which is immortal, which is unlimited, and which is indefinite is the Person (Puruṣa) in the solar orb, for that [Person] is the essence of the two elements.

This is with reference to the gods.

4

Now with reference to the body:

The gross form is that which is other than the air and the ākāśa that is in the body.
It is mortal, it is limited, and it is definite.

The essence of that which is gross, which is mortal, which is limited, and which is definite is the eye; for it (the eye) is the essence of the three elements.

5

Now the subtle: It is the air and the ākāśa that is in the body.
It is immortal, it is unlimited, and it is indefinite.

The essence of that which is subtle, which is immortal, which is unlimited, and which is indefinite is the person (puruṣa) that is in the right eye, for that [person] is the essence of the two elements.

6

The form of that person is like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like grey sheep’s wool, or like the [scarlet] insect called Indragopa, or like a tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning.

He who knows this—his splendour is like a flash of lightning.

Now, therefore, the description of Brahman: ”Not this, not this”; for there is no other and more appropriate description than this “Not this.”

Now the designation of Brahman: “The Truth of truth.” The vital breath is truth, and It (Brahman) is the Truth of that.

Chapter IV
YAJNAVALKYA AND MAITREYĪ (I)

1

Maitreyī, my dear,” said Yājñyavalkya, “I am going to renounce this life. Let me make a final settlement between you and Kātyāyani (his other wife).”

2

Thereupon Maitreyī said: “Venerable Sir, if indeed the whole earth, full of wealth, belonged to me, would I be immortal through that?”

“No,” replied Yājñyavalkya, “your life would be just like that of people who have plenty. Of Immortality, however, there is no hope through wealth.”

3

Then Maitreyī said: “What should I do with that which would not make me immortal? Tell me, venerable Sir, of that alone which you know [to be the only means of attaining Immortality].”

4

Yājñyavalkya replied:
“My dear, you have been my beloved [even before], and [now] you say what is after my heart. Come, sit down; I will explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate [on what I say].”

5

Then Yājñyavalkya said:

“Verily, not for the sake of the husband, my dear, is the husband loved,
but he is loved for the sake of the self [which, in its true nature, is one with the Supreme Self].
Verily, not for the sake of the wife, my dear, is the wife loved,
but she is loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the sons, my dear, are the sons loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of wealth, my dear, is wealth loved,
but it is loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the brāhmin, my dear, is the brāhmin loved,
but he is loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the kshatriya, my dear, is the kshatriya loved,
but he is loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the worlds, my dear, are the worlds loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the gods, my dear, are the gods loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the beings, my dear, are the beings loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.
Verily, not for the sake of the All, my dear, is the All loved,
but it is loved for the sake of the self.

Verily, my dear Maitreyī, it is the Self that should be realized—
should be heard of, reflected on, and meditated upon.
By the realization of the Self, my dear—
through hearing, reflection, and meditation—all this is known.

6

The brāhmin rejects one who knows him as different from the Self.
The kshatriya rejects one who knows him as different from the Self.
The worlds reject one who knows them as different from the Self.
The gods reject one who knows them as different from the Self.
The beings reject one who knows them as different from the Self.
The All rejects one who knows it as different from the Self.

This brāhmin, this kshatriya, these worlds, these gods, these beings, and this All—are that Self.

7-9

As the various particular [kinds of] notes of a drum, when it is beaten, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the general note of the drum or the general sound produced by different kinds of strokes is grasped;

And as the various particular notes of a conch, when it is blown, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the general note of the conch or the general sound produced by different kinds of blowing is grasped;

And as the various particular notes of a vinā, when it is played, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the general note of the vinā or the general sound produced by different kinds of playing is grasped;

[Similarly, no particular objects are perceived in the waking and dream states apart from Pure Intelligence.]

10

As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various [kinds of] smoke issue forth,
even so, my dear, the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sāma-Veda,
the Atharvāngirasa, history (itihāsa), mythology (purāna), the arts (vidyā),
the Upanishads, verses (ślokas), aphorisms (sutras),
elucidations (anuvyākhyānas), and explanations (vyākhyānas)
are [like] the breath of this infinite Reality.

From this [Supreme Self] are all these, indeed, breathed forth.

11

As the ocean is the one goal of all waters (i.e. the place where they merge),
so the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch,
the nostrils are the one goal of all smells,
the tongue is the one goal of all savours,
the ear is the one goal of all sounds,
the mind is the one goal of all deliberations,
the intellect is the one goal of all [forms of] knowledge,
the hands are the one goal of all actions,
the organ of generation is the one goal of all [kinds of] enjoyment,
the excretory organ is the one goal of all excretions,
the feet are the one goal of all [kinds of] walking,
the organ of speech is the one goal of all the Vedas.

12

As a lump of salt dropped into water becomes dissolved in water and cannot be taken out again, but wherever we taste [the water] it tastes salt, even so, my dear, this great, endless, infinite Reality is Pure Intelligence alone.

[This self] comes out [as a separate entity] from these elements and with their destruction [this separate existence] also is destroyed. After attaining [oneness] it has no more consciousness. This is what I say, my dear.”

So said Yājñyavalkya.

l3

Then Maitreyī said:
“Just here you have bewildered me, venerable Sir,
by saying that after attaining [oneness] the self has no more consciousness.”

Yājñyavalkya replied:
“Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering, my dear.
This [Reality] is enough for knowledge, O Maitreyī.”

14

For when there is duality, as it were, then one smells another, one sees another, one hears another, one speaks to another, one thinks of another, one knows another.

But when everything has become the Self, then what should one smell and through what, what should one see and through what, what should one hear and through what, what should one speak and through what, what should one think and through what, what should one know and through what?

Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known—through what, my dear, should one know the Knower?”

Chapter V
THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF CREATED OBJECTS

1

This earth is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this earth.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this earth
and the bright, immortal, corporeal being who is in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

2

This water is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this water.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this water
and the bright, immortal being existing as the semen in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

3

This fire is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this fire.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this fire
and the bright, immortal being identified with the organ of speech in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

4

This air is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this air.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this air
and the bright, immortal being identified with the vital breath in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self. [The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

5

This sun is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this sun.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this sun
and the bright, immortal being identified with the eye in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self. [The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

6

These quarters are the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of these quarters.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in these quarters
and the bright, immortal being identified with the ear in the body and with the time of hearing [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self. [The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

7

This moon is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this moon.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this moon
and the bright, immortal being identified with the mind in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self. [The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

8

This lightning is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this lightning.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this lightning
and the bright, immortal being identified with the light in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

9

This thunder-cloud is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this thunder-cloud.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this thunder-cloud
and the bright, immortal being identified with sound and with the voice in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

10

This ākāśa is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this ākāśa.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this ākāśa
and the bright, immortal being identified with the ākāśa in the heart in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

11

This dharma (righteousness) is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this dharma.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this dharma
and the bright, immortal being identified with the dharma in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

12

This truth is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this truth.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in this truth
and the bright, immortal being identified with truth in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

13

This mankind is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this mankind.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in mankind
and the bright, immortal being identified with mankind in the body [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

14

This cosmic body (ātman) is the honey (effect) of all beings,
and all beings are the honey (effect) of this cosmic body.

Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in the cosmic body
and the bright, immortal being identified with the [individual] self [are both honey].

[These four] are but this Self.

[The Knowledge of] this [Self] is [the means to] Immortality; this [underlying unity] is Brahman; this [Knowledge of Brahman] is [the means of becoming] all.

15

And verily this Self is the Ruler of all beings, the King of all beings.

Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a chariot wheel,
so are all beings, all gods, all worlds, all organs, and all these [individual] creatures fixed in this Self.

16

This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyāch, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Aśvīns. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this and said:

O Aśvīns in human form, I will disclose that terrible deed of yours, called damśa, which you performed out of greed, as the thunder-cloud discloses the approaching rain.

I will disclose the honey (madhu-doctrine), which Dadhyāch, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught you through the head of a horse.”

17

This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyāch, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Aśvīns. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this and said:

O Aśvīns, you fixed a horse’s head on Dadhyāch, versed in the Atharva-Veda,
who, O terrible ones, wishing to be true to his promise,
taught you the [ritualistic] meditation
on the honey (madhu-doctrine) connected with the sun,
and also the secret (spiritual) meditation on it.”

18

This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyāch, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Aśvīns. The Mantra (rishi) perceived this and said:

He (the Lord) made bodies with two feet; He made bodies with four feet.
Having first become a bird (the subtle body), He, the Supreme Person, entered the bodies.
On account of His dwelling in all bodies (pur), He is called the Person (Puruṣa).
There is nothing that is not covered by Him, nothing that is not pervaded by Him.”

19

This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyāch, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught the Aśvins. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this and said:

He (the Lord) transformed Himself in accordance with each form,
and [each] form of His was for the sake of making Him known.

The Lord (Indra), through His māyās, appears manifold;
for to Him are yoked ten horses, nay, hundreds.
This Ātman is the organs; It is ten and thousands—many and infinite.
This Brahman is without antecedent or consequent, without interior or exterior.

This self, the all-perceiving, is Brahman. This is the teaching [of the Upanishads].”

Chapter VI
THE LINE OF TEACHERS

1

Now the line of teachers [through whom the honey, or the madhu-doctrine, has been transmitted]:

Pautimāshya [received it] from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimāshya. [This] Pautimāshya from [another] Gaupavana. [This] Gaupavana from Kauśika. Kauśika from Kaundinya. Kaundinya from Śandilya. Śandilya from Kauśika and Gautama. Gautama

2

From Agniveśya. Agniveśya from Śandilya and Anabhimlāta. Anabhimlāta from [another] Anabhimlāta. This Anabhimlāta from [still another] Anabhimlāta.

[This] Anabhimlāta from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava and Prāchinayogya. Saitava and Prāchinayogya from Pārāśarya. Pārāśarya from Bhāradvāja.

Bhāradvāja from [another] Bhāradvāja and Gautama. Gautama from [still another] Bhāradvāja. [This] Bhāradvāja from Pārāśarya. Pārāśarya from Baijavāpāyana. Baijavāpāyana from Kauśikāyani. Kauśikāyani

3

From Ghritakauśika.Ghritakauśika from Parāsaryayana. Pārāśaryāyana from Pārāśarya. Pārāśarya from Jātukamya. Jātukamya from Āsurāyana and Yāska. Āsurāyana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. Aupajandhani from Āsuri. Āsuri from Bhāradvāja.

Bhāradvāja from Ātreya. Ātreya from Mānti. Mānti from Gautama. Gautama from [another] Gautama. [This] Gautama from Vātsya. Vātsya from Śāndilya. Śāndilya from Kaiśorya Kāpya. Kaiśorya Kāpya from Kumārahārita.

Kumārahārita from Gālava. Gālava from Vidarbhikaundinya. Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapāt Bābhrava. Vatsanapāt Bābhrava from Pathin Saubhara. Pathin Saubhara from Ayāsya Āngirasa. Ayāsya Āngirasa from Ābhuti Tvāshtra.

Ābhuti Tvāshtra from Viśvarupa Tvāshtra. Viśvarupa Tvashtra from the Aśvins. The Aśvins from Dadhyāch Ātharvana. Dadhyāch Ātharvana from Ātharvana Daiva. Ātharvana Daiva from Mrityu Prādhvamsana.

Mrityu Prādhvamsana from Prādhvamsana. Prādhvamsana from Ekarshi. Ekarshi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyashti. Vyashti from Sanāru. Sanāru from Sanātana. Sanātana from Sanaga. Sanaga from Parameshthin (Virāj). Parameshthin from Brahmā (Hiraṇyagarbha).

Brahman is self-born. Salutation to Brahman.