Brahma Sutras Chapter 1. 4
Brahma Sutras 1.4
Anumanikadhikaranam - Topic 1 (Sutras 1-7)
The Mahat and Avyakta of the Kathopanishad do not refer to the Sankhya Tattvas
Anumanikamapyekeshamiti chet na sarirarupakavinyastagrihiter darsayati cha |I.4.1 (107)
If it be said that in some (recensions of the Vedas) that which is inferred (i.e. the Pradhana) (is) also (mentioned), (we say) no, because (the word ‘Avyakta’ occurring in the Katha Upanishad) is mentioned in a simile referred to the body (and means the body itself and not the Pradhana of the (Sankhyas); (the Sruti) also explains (it).
Anumanikam - that which is inferred (i.e., the Pradhana);
Api - also;
Ekesham - of some branches or school of Srutis or recensions of the text;
Iti - thus; Chet - if; Na - No;
Sarirarupa- kavinyastagrihiteh - because it is mentioned in a simile referring to the body (Sarira - body, Rupaka - simile, Vinyasta - contained, Grihiteh - because of the reference);
Darsayati - (the Srutis) explain;
Cha - also, too, and.
Sukshmam tu tadarhatvat |I.4.2 (108)
But the subtle (body is meant by the term Avyakta) on account of its capability (of being so designated).
Sukshmam - the subtle, the permanent atoms, the causal body;
Tu - but;
Tad arhatvat - because it can be properly so termed.
Tadadhinatvat arthavat |I.4.3 (109)
On account of its dependence (on the Lord, such a previous seminal condition of the world may be admitted, because such an admission is) reasonable.
Tad - its;
Adhinatvat - on account of dependence;
Arthavat - having a sense or a meaning subserving an end or purpose; is fitting.
Jneyatvavachanaccha |I.4.4 (110)
And because it is not mentioned (that the Avyakta) is to be known (it cannot be the Pradhana of the Sankhyas).
Jneyatva - that is the object to be known;
Avachanat - because of nonmention;
Cha - and.
Vadatiti chet na prajno hi prakaranat |I.4.5 (111)
And if you maintain that the text does speak (of the Pradhana as an object of knowledge) we deny that; because the intelligent (supreme) Self is meant on account of the general subject matter.
Vadati - the verse or the text states;
Iti - thus; Chet - if. Na - no;
Prajnah - the intellect supreme;
Hi - because;
Prakaranat - from the context, because of the general subject-matter of the Chapter.
Trayanameva chaivamupanyasah prasnascha |I.4.6 (112)
And there is question and explanation relating to three things only (not to the Pradhana).
Trayanam - of the three, namely three boons asked by Nachiketas;
Eva - only; Cha - and;
Evam - thus;
Upanyasah - mentioned, (presentation by way of answer);
Prasnat - question; Cha - and.
Mahadvaccha |I.4.7 (113)
And (the case of the term Avyakta) is like that of the term Mahat.
Mahadvat - like the Mahat;
Cha - and.
Chamasadhikaranam - Topic 2 (Sutras 8-10)
The Aja of Svetasvatara Upanishad does not mean Pradhana
Chamasavadaviseshat |I.4.8 (114)
(It cannot be maintained that ‘Aja’ means the Pradhana) because no special characteristic is stated, as in the case of the cup.
Chamasavat - like a cup;
Aviseshat - because there is no special characteristic.
Jyotirupakrama tu tatha hyadhiyata eke |I.4.9 (115)
But (the elements) beginning with light (are meant by the term Aja), because some read so in their text.
Jyotirupakrama - elements beginning with light;
Tu - but; Tatha - thus;
Hi - because;
Adhiyate - some read, some recensions have a reading;
Eke - some.
Kalpanopadesaccha madhvadivadavirodhah |I.4.10 (116)
And on account of the statement of the assumption (of a metaphor) there is nothing contrary to reason (in Aja denoting the causal matter) as in the case of honey (denoting the sun in Madhu Vidya for the sake of meditation) and similar cases.
Kalpana - the creative power of thought;
Upadesat - from teaching;
Cha - and;
Madhvadivat - as in the case of honey etc.;
Avirodhah - no incongruity.
Sankhyopasangrahadhikaranam - Topic 3 (Sutras 11-13)
The five-fold-five (Pancha-panchajanah) does not refer to the twenty-five Sankhyan categories
Na sankhyopasangrahadapi nanabhavadatirekaccha |I.4.11 (117)
Even from the statement of the number (five-fold-five i.e., twenty-five categories by the Sruti it is) not (to be understood that the Sruti refers to the Pradhana) on account of the differences (in the categories and the excess over the number of the Sankhyan categories).
Na - not;
Sankhya - number;
Upasangrahat - from statement;
Api - even;
Nanabhavat - on account of the differences;
Atirekat - on account of excess;
Cha - and.
Pranadayo vakyaseshat |I.4.12 (118)
(The Panchajanah or the five people referred to are) the vital force etc., (as is seen) from the complementary passage.
Pranadayah - the Prana and the rest;
Vakyaseshat - because of the complementary passage.
Jyotishaikeshamasatyanne |I.4.13 (119)
In the text of some (the Kanva recension) where food is not mentioned (the number five is made up) by ‘light’ (mentioned in the previous verse).
Jyotisha - by light;
Ekesham - of some texts or recensions, i.e., of the Kanvas;
Asati - in the absence of;
Anne - food.
Karanatvadhikaranam - Topic 4 (Sutras 14-15)
Brahman is the First cause
Karanatvena chakasadishu yathavyapadishtokteh |I.4.14 (120)
Although there is a conflict of the Vedanta texts as regards the things created such as ether and so on, there is no such conflict with respect to Brahman as the First Cause, on account of His being represented in one text as described in other texts.
Karanatvena - as the (First) cause;
Cha - and;
Akasadishu - with reference to Akasa and the rest;
Yatha - as;
Vyapadishta - taught in different Srutis;
Ukteh - because of the statement.
Samakarshat |I.4.15 (121)
On account of the connection (with passages treating of Brahman, non-existence does not mean absolute Non-existence).
Samakarshat - from its connection with a distant expression.
Balakyadhikaranam - Topic 5 (Sutras 16-18)
He who is the maker of the Sun, Moon, etc. is Brahman and not Prana or the individual soul
Jagadvachitvat |I.4.16 (122)
(He whose work is this is Brahman) because (the ‘work’) denotes the world.
Jagat - the world;
Vachitvat - because of the denotation.
Jivamukhyapranalinganneti chet tad vyakhyatam |I.4.17 (123)
If it be said that on account of the inferential marks of the individual soul and the chief Prana (Brahman is) not (referred to by the word ‘matter’ in the passage quoted), (we reply) that has already been explained.
Jiva - the individual soul;
Mukhyaprana - the chief vital air;
Lingat - because of the inferential marks;
Na iti - not thus; Chet - if; Tat - that;
Vyakhyatam - has already been explained.
Anyartham tu Jaiminih prasnavyakhyanabhyamapi chaivameke |I.4.18 (124)
But Jaimini thinks that (the reference to the individual soul in the text) has another purpose on account of the question and the reply; moreover, thus some also (the Vajasaneyins) (read in their text or recension).
Anyartham - for another purpose;
Tu - but;
Jaiminih - Jaimini;
Prasnavyakhyanabhyam - from the question and the reply;
Api - also; Cha - and;
Evam - in this way;
Eke - others, other Srutis.
Vakyanvayadhikaranam - Topic 6 (Sutras 19-22)
The Atman to be seen through hearing etc., of the Bri. Up. II-4-5 is Brahman and not Jivatma
Vakyanvayat |I.4.19 (125)
(The Self to be seen, to be heard etc., is the Supreme Self) on account of the connected meaning of the sentences.
Vakyanvayat - On account of the connected meaning of the sentences.
Pratijnasiddherlingamasmarathyah |I.4.20 (126)
(The fact that the individual soul is taught as the object of realisation is an) indicatory mark which is proof of the proposition; so Asmarathya thinks.
Pratijnasiddheh - because of the proof of the proposition;
Lingam - indicatory mark;
Asmarathyah - the sage Asmarathya.
Utkramishyata evambhavadityaudulomih |I.4.21 (127)
The initial statement identifies the individual soul with Brahman or the Supreme Self because the soul, when it will depart (from the body), is such (i.e. one with the Supreme Self); thus Audulomi thinks.
Utkramishyata - of him who would pass away from the body;
Evam bhavat - because of this condition;
Iti - thus;
Audulomih - the sage Audulomi.
Avasthiteriti Kasakritsnah |I.4.22 (128)
(The initial statement is made) because (the Supreme Self) exists in the condition (of the individual soul); so the Sage Kasakritsna thinks.
Avasthiteh - because of the existence;
Iti - thus (holds);
Kasakritsnah - the sage Kasakritsna.
Prakrtyadhikaranam - Topic 7 (Sutra 23-27)
Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause
Prakritischa pratijna drishtantanuparodhat |I.4.23 (129)
(Brahman is) the material cause also on account of (this view) not being in conflict with the proposition and the illustrations (quoted in the Sruti).
Prakritih - the material cause;
Cha - also;
Pratijna - the proposition;
Drishtanta - illustrations;
Anuparodhat - on account of this not being in conflict.
Abhidhyopadesacca |I. 4.24 (130)
On account of the statement of will or reflection (to create on the part of the Supreme Self, It is the material cause).
Abidhya - will, reflection;
Upadesat - on account of instruction or teaching or statement;
Cha - also, and.
Sakshaccobhayamnanat |I.4.25 (131)
And because the Sruti states that both (the origin and the dissolution of the universe) have Brahman for their material cause.
Sakshat - direct;
Cha - also;
Ubhayamnanat - because the Sruti states both.
Atmakriteh parinamat |I.4.26 (132)
(Brahman is the material cause of the world) because it created itself by undergoing modification.
Atmakriteh - created itself;
Parinamat - by undergoing modification.
Yonischa hi giyate |I.4.27 (133)
And because (Brahman) is called the source.
Yoni - the womb, the source, the origin;
Cha - and; Hi - because;
Giyate - is called.
Sarvavyakhyanadhikaranam - Topic 8 (Sutra 28)
The arguments which refute the Sankhyas refute the others also
Etena sarve vyakhyata vyakhyatah |I.4.28 (134)
By this all (the doctrines concerning the origin of the world which are opposed to the Vedanta texts) are explained.
Etena - by this, by what has been said;
Sarve - all;
Vyakhyatah - are explained.